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No. 37 October 1, 1957 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram F. A. MacDougail 

Minister Deputy Minister 



Table of contents 



The Moose Season in the District of Sault Ste. Marie, 
1956o - compiled by A. J. Herridge 



(THESE REPORTS aRE FOR INTRa-DEPaRTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Page 



Aerial Moose Inventory, Port Arthur District, 1957. 

- by R. A. Ryder 20 

Aerial Moose Survey, Sioux Lookout District, March, 

1957c - by R. H. Trotter 28 

Game Inventory of the Caribou Crown Game Preserve. 

- by R. H. Trotter 41 

Ontario Sale of Licence 9 s for 1956. 

- compiled by W. Mulholland 49 

A Study of the Yellow Pickerel Population in Lake 
Superior and the Kipigon River System, 1956. 

- by R. A. Ryder 50 

Creel Census - Kenora District, 1955.. 

- by J. M. Fraser 65 

Appendix A 

Results of Deer Aging Tests. - by R. L. Hepburn 72 



- 1 - 



THE MOOSE SEASON IN THE DISTRICT OF SaULT STE. MaRIE, 1956 

compiled by 

Ao J. Herridge 



This report is an assessment of the open season on moose in 
the District of Sault Ste. Marie during 1956. It is based upon 
reports supplied by hunters, interviews conducted by personnel of the 
Department, and population data. 



The Season in 1956 

For residents of Ontario, the season 
13th to December 24th. For non-residents, the 
October 13th to November 15th. In both cases, 
with the exception of St. Joseph's Island, was 
of moose of all ages and of either sex. 

Previous Seasons 



extended from October 
open season was from 
the entire District, 
open to the shooting 



In 195 5 p the following seasons prevailed 1 
Non-resident hunters - Northern section of the District open 
the taking of any moose from October 15th to October 31st. 



for 



- Resident hunters - Northern section - any moose - October 15th-31stj 
November 26th to December 24th. 

- remainder of District - bull moose only - 
November 12th to December 17th. 

Prior to 1955* there had been no open season, so far as 
non-residents were concerned, since 194$. There had been limited 
open seasons for residents, on bull moose only, in 1954 from November 
26th to December 11th, in 1953 from November 26th to December 24th, 
and from November 26th to December 24th in 1952. 

Weather Condition s 

Generally speaking, the weather from opening day to the 
first week of November was unseasonably warm. The days were sunny 
and warm, although overnight temperatures often approached the 
freezing point. The following table lists noon temperatures at 
several points in the District during this period; 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemanoct1957onta 



- 2 - 



Date 



Oct. 


15 


Octc 


16 


Oct. 


17 


Oct. 


13 


Oct. 


19 


Oct. 


20 


Oct. 


21 


Oct. 


22 


Oct, 


23 


Oct. 


24 


Oct. 


25 


Oct. 


26 


Oct. 


27 


Oct. 


23 


Oct. 


29 


Oct. 


30 


Oct. 


31 



Peshu Lake 

64 
64 
70 
43 
54 
53 
64 
53 
43 
42 

55 
46 

44 



Sand Lake 


Blind River 


Soo 


Averages 


5^ 


57 


64 


61 


66 


54 


60 


61 


65 


63 


76 


63 


43 


53 


52 


49 


53 


54 


54 


55 


53 


52 


60 


57 


52 


52 


60 


57 


63 


54 


54 


57 


39 


52 


43 


45 




43 


46 


45 




52 


54 


54 




43 


46 


46 




52 


54 


50 




44 








56 








56 








53 







Lic ense Sales 

(a) Resident Hunters 



0000009000 



Total licenses sold 

Licensees who hunted in other districts 

Bought licenses elsewhere, hunted in this District 

Bought licenses, did not hunt 

Estimated number of residents who hunted in this District 
( b ) Non-resident Hunt e r s 



900090000000 * 009000000000000 

eooooooooooeooeeooo 

00000000 

ooe^oooo', oeoooooosocoooec&ooo 



oeeocoooooooooooooeeoooooooooooooeooooo 

oooooooeoocooooooo 



Total licenses sold 

Licensees who hunted in other districts . 

Estimated number of Non-residents hunting in this District. 
(c) Resident and Non-resident Hunters 



Total licenses sold in District . 

Total licensees who hunted in other districts .. 
Total licensees who bought licenses elsewhere, hunted 

Total who bought licenses this District, but did not hunt 
Total who hunted this District . 



000*00*0000 

00000000000 



oooooooooaoooooroooceoooooo 



Return of Questionnaires 



1,517 

129 

24 

44 

1,363 



209 

31 

123 



1,726 
210 

24 

44 

1,496 



A small proportion of the returns were sent in by hunters 
during the season and up until Christmas. These proved to be, for 
the most part, returns of hunters who had been successful. In earl} r 
January a radio and television appeal was made. This was followed 
by letters enclosing returns to nonrespondents in mid-January and at 
the end of January. Early in February the delinquent licensees 
were contacted by telephone and by Conservation Officers. 



- 3 - 

Questionnaires returned by Non-resident hunters - 

194 out of 209 (93$) 
Questionnaires returned by Resident hunters - 

1,429 out of 1,517 (9h-%) 

Failure of the licensees to provide complete details 
regarding postal address was a frequent reason for failure to secure 
returns of questionnaires . 

Reported Kill of Moose 















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Residents 


127 


125 


32 


8 


292 


1077 


1368 


21o3 


Non-resident 


40 


20 


2 





62 


66 


128 


48.5 


Ey all hunters 


167 


145 


34 


8 


354 s 


1143 


1496 


2J75 



It should be noted that these figures for hunter success, 
since they make no estimate of kill by hunters who failed to make a 
return, are probably higher than actually occurred « Experience has 
shown that successful hunters are much more likely to make reports 
than are unsuccessful ones. 

Comparison of Data of 1955 and 1956 



No. of Hunters 
Returns Received 
Kill - Bulls 

- Cows 

- Male Calves 

- Female Calves 



TOTAL 

Success - 

(Total 
(Total 



Hunters) 
Returns) 



100 



19.7 
20.6 



292 

21.3 
22. 8 



Residents 


Non-r 
1955 


ssiderits 
1956 


All 

1955 


Hunters 


1955 1956 


1956 


505 1368 


36 


128 


541 


1498 


484 1280 


30 


119 


514 


1398 


90 127 


5 


40 


95 


167 


5 125 


5 


20 


10 


145 


5 32 


1 


2 


6 


34 


8 


- 





- 


8 



11 



30.6 
36.6 



62 

48 
52 



111 



20.5 
21.6 



x 



3 54 



23.4 
25oO 



k Revised later to 359. 



- 4 - 



sault ste. marie distPcIct 

Map II o. 1 




Sault Ste. II 



Plan Showing - 

Location of 
Non-resident Hunters 7 
Moose Kill, 1956» 



a - Bulls (40) 
O - Cows (20) 
© - Male Calves (2) 



20 10 



20 



40 



- 5 - 



SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT 
ViSl d Up » 2 



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Plan Showing - 

Location of Resident 
Hunters 9 Moose Kill, 
1956. 



20 



10 
i — i, 




=t 



- 6 - 



SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT 
^ap I.o. 3 




Sault Ste 



Plan Showing - 

Moose 1955-1956 

E2 - 1 animal per 2-5 sq. miles 
fiSBl - 1 animal per 5-10 sq. miles 
5^-1 animal per 10+ sq. miles 



20 10 







20 



40 
=3 



- 7 - 

Geographic Distribution of the Kill - See Maps No. 1 & 2 

It will be noted that although there are still several 
townships in the inaccessible parts of the District where no moose 
were killed and that heavy kills did occur in a few easily accessible 
areas, generally speaking most of the District was hunted and did 
produce moose. The distribution of the kill in 1956 was much better 
than that in 1955 • 

On the basis of a District-wide assessment of trappers 9 
reports, aerial surveys, reports from tourist outfitters, surveys by 
Conservation Officers, and other data, it was established that during 
the winter of 1955/56, following the open season of 1955? there were 
approximately 1400 moose in the District of Sault Ste. Marie, We 
are quite certain that this is a conservative estimate. The general 
distribution of these animals is indicated on Map 3° 

Discussion 

( a ) Loss of Heat Due to Spoilage 

Some unfavourable public reaction to the moose season was 
based on the premise that such an early opening would result in meat 
spoilage. Since the weather for the first three weeks of the season 
was unseasonably warm a great many persons assumed that the loss of 
moose meat due to spoilage would be excessive. 

To determine as accurately as possible the amount of meat 
spoiled due to the warm weather, all our officers made enquiries 
for, and checked rumours of, instances of meat wastage. These 
enquiries were made of locker plants, tourist outfitters, guides, 
and in fact, the public at large. 

In nearly every instance rumours of spoiled meat were 
unfounded and in the few cases found owners insisted meat was still 
good. 

In analysing the results of the survey and in discussing 
the subject with members of Rod and Gun Clubs and a Member of 
Parliament, it is our firm conclusion that the amount of meat 
spoilage during the 1956 non-resident season was, if anything, less 
than that in previous seasons. In short, the earlier opening did 
not contribute to excessive losses of meat and this in a year when 
the weather was unseasonably warm for a good portion of the season. 

(b) Numbers of Hunters 

In 1956 there was an increase in numbers of Resident and 
Non-Resident moose hunters in the District of Sault Ste. Marie over 
1955 of 171% and 255/0 respectively. No doubt this was due in large 
part, especially with respect to Non-Residents, to the considerably 
greater area open to hunting in 1956. In addition, the areas open 
in 1956 were much more accessible than those of 1955« 



- g A 

There is also good reason to believe that the widespread 
publicity which was given to the subject of moose hunting, arising 
out of controversies carried in the public press prior to the open 
season, attracted many hunters. 

( c ) Population, Hunting Pressure, and Harvest 

In an earlier section of this report it is indicated that 
the moose population of the District after the close of the open 
season of 1955 was 1400. Studies of Dr. R. L. Peterson, of the 
Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, and a number of other competent 
authorities have shown that in Ontario it is reasonable to expect 
an average annual increase of about 30% - 35% in moose populations. 

Thus, if we accept the lower, or more conservative of these 
figures, it is not unreasonable to estimate that there were about 
1&20 moose in the District of Sault Ste. Marie at the beginning of 
the hunting season of 195o« 

The total take of moose by hunters in this District in 
1956 was 354 K « This represents only about 19% of the moose popula- 
tion of the District, which is considerably less than the rate of 
increase in the herd and thus well within the safe limits of harvest 
of this important resource. 

Comparison of Maps 1, 2 and 3 relates the distribution 
of moose in the District with distribution of the kill. It is 
gratifying to note that, for the most part, the highest harvest was 
concentrated in the areas best able to sustain a relatively high 
hunting pressure. There is no indication that hunters concentrated 
in the most easily accessible areas near centres of human population 
and decimated the relatively small populations of moose in these 
areas. 

It would be very desirable to increase hunting pressure in 
many individual townships but the north central part of the District 
though presently inaccessible, is most in need of this additional 
hunting pressure. 

Conclusions and Suggestions 

Kill Survey Methods 

(a) The first mailed reminder should be sent out one week before the 
end of the season. 

(b) A total of three mailed reminders are apparently required for 
adequate returns. The second and third of these should be timed 
as indicated by a graph which plots the rate of returns daily. 

(c) The radio appeal for returns in 1956 was not very effective in 
producing returns. If the production of returns is the only 
criterion to be used in evaluating such radio publicity then 
it is suggested that the money was not well spent. 

x Revised later to 359» 



- 9 - 

(d) It is suggested that the district selling a license should be 
responsible for the return of that license. All of our staff 
are agreed that this is proper but there seems to be some 
question in the minds of personnel from other districts, hence 
the inclusion of this recommendation. 

(e) It is recommended that all districts consider their data 
unreliable until &Q% of the returns have been received . Only 
in this way can bias be removed when comparing data between 
districts,, 

(f) If in 1957 moose licenses are to be issued by regular license 
issuers in addition to Department outlets, it is hoped that the 
district might be advised of a list of such issuers well in 
advance of the season so that we may contact these issuers and 
ensure accurate records. 

(g) A larger hunter return form of perhaps postcard size would be 
less liable to loss by licensees and by post office personnel. 
One additional comment concerning the return suggests that there 
is little, if any, need for obliterating some of the questions 
by stamping 1956 in bold type across its face. 

(h) Some consideration of a reward system for returns may be due 
for some consideration. 

Size of Kill 

In general it was concluded that the size of kill was in 
line with numbers available for cropping under reasonable management. 

Geographic Distribut ion 

Our kill was much better distributed over the district in 
1956 than it was in 1955 ° This improvement appears to be related 
to the earlier season and associated good hunting weather which al- 
lowed access to most of the District. Since there are still areas 
of the District which were not hunted in 1956 we must continue to 
emphasize the need of finding methods to encourage hunters to hunt 
in these presently uncropped areas. 

Temporal Distribution of the Kill 

It is noted that the kill in December of the 1956 season 
was much higher than that of December in the previous year. It 
appears safe to conclude that the main factor causing this difference 
was good travel and hunting weather. This emphasizes the necessity 
of including weather data in such returns annually. It is suggested 
further that the weather in 1955 be added to the 1955 report in as 
much detail as can be recalled by our staff. 

Sex Ratio of the Kill 

The difference in sex ratios of the kills by residents as 
compared to non-residents should be noted. The overall sex ratio of 
the kill being slightly in favour of cows is quite acceptable to our 
staff. 



- 10 - 



Calves in the Kill 



There is a considerable concern about the shooting of 
calves amongst our staff, as long as our population of calves was 
normal in the 1956 season then the number taken is quite acceptable. 
If, however, the calf population was sub-normal, and we have no way 
of knowing whether or not this was so, then we would very easily be 
alarmed at even such a small kill as occurred in 1956. We do not 
know why such a small number of calves were killed. We do not know 
if it was a reflection on a small number of calves available or if 
it was a matter of hunter selection. We are also concerned about the 
small number of females amongst the calves that were shot. The data 
indicate in some degree there was selection by hunters, especially 
during the earliest part of the season. In October calves made up 
10$ of the kill, in November 20$, and in December 15$« It is 
recommended that on tne hunter return form, where hunters are asked 
to record the number of moose seen, the question should be altered 
to include a breakdown into bulls, cows and calves seen. It is 
further recommended that our annual request for moose numbers from 
trappers this year should request a similar breakdown of moose 
numbers. 

It was a mistake not to collect jaws for aging our kill 
in 1956. The programme of aging the kill must be an accepted annual 
task. Our present concern over the calf population can only be 
verified or alleviated by aging the kill during the next four or five 
years. 



APPENDIX a - States Contributing Hunters 



Michigan 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Georgia 

Florida 

Illinois 

Missouri 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

Blind River (local address) 



33 
22 

20 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



134 



- 11 - 

APPENDIX B - Non -Resident Hunter Effort 

62 successful hunters reported hunting a total of 347 days, or an 
average of 5-5 days per hunter. 

55 unsuccessful hunters reported hunting a total of 403 days, or an 
average of 7.3 days per hunter. 

Total man-days of hunting . ........ , 750 

lOOci-L MOO O U K.1J.-L OC1 ooooo»oo«*oo*DOoc9ooooo«oeooe«c4e*9ceoeea*ooo O^C 

On an average, 12.1 days of hunting were required to kill one moose. 

APPENDIX C - Temporal Distribution of Moose Kill by Non-Resident 
Hunters 

Bulls Cow Male Calf Female Calf 



October 13 


4 


2 




14 


1 






15 


3 


1 




16 


3 






17 


4 


1 


1 


IS 


1 






19 


1 






20 


1 






21 


3 






22 


2 


2 




23 


1 




1 


24 


2 






25 


1 






26 


1 






27 




2 




25 


1 






29 


2 






30 


1 






31 




2 




November 1 








2 




1 




3 








4 








5 


1 






6 


2 


2 




7 


1 






8 








9 


2 


2 




10 


1 






11 


1 


2 




12 




1 




13 








14 




1 




15 









40 20 



- 12 - 

APPENDIX D - Resi dent Hunter Effort 

292 successful hunters report hunting a total of 1,3$5 days for an 
average of 4»$ per hunter. 

996 unsuccessful hunters report hunting a total of 6,933 days, f<~-r 
an average of 6.9 days per hunter. 

1 Ouul innn UuVS O I ft Lin Tj lll£^ o*«oo«ooae9*oo«oo»«ofr9**oo*eo6«oooeo O ^ ^ 1 u 

1 OUcl-L lilOOSL- K. 1 _L J_ L. CI ooeo«oo«o«ooooo*oo«o*o«»ccc««coo»e>o»oooc*«o 'v yC 

On an average, 23. 5 days were required to kill one moose. 

APPENDIX E - Temporal Distribution of Moose Kill by Resident 
Hunters. 





Bulls 


Cows 


Male Calves 


Female Calves 


October 13 


13 


5 


2 




14 


4 


2 


1 


1 


15 


5 


6 


1 




16 


4 


2 






17 


3 




1 




IS 


2 


4 






19 




1 






20 


3 


3 


1 




21 


1 


1 






22 


1 


2 






23 


2 








24 


3 








25 




1 






26 


2 


3 






27 


1 


3 


1 




23 


2 


4 


1 




29 


6 


3 






30 




1 






31 


1 
53 


2 

43 






TOTALS 


S 


1 


November 1 


2 


3 






2 


1 


2 






3 


2 


6 


1 




4 


2 


1 






5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


3 


1 






7 










3 




3 


1 




9 










10 


4 




1 




11 


1 








12 


4 


1 


2 




13 




1 


2 




14 


1 


2 






15 


3 


1 


1 





r 13 r 



Bulls 



Cows 



Male Calves 



Female Calves 



November 16 


1 


2 






17 


1 


3 


1 


2 


IS 


1 




1 




19 


3 








20 


1 


3 






21 


2 




1 




22 




3 






23 


3 


2 






24 


2 


4 


1 




25 




3 


1 




26 


1 


2 






27 






1 


1 


28 


1 








29 


2 


1 






30 




3 
43 


1 




TOTALS 


42 


16 


4 


December 1 


5 


5 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 






3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 


3 






5 






1 




6 




1 


1 




7 


1 








8 


1 








9 


2 




2 




10 


2 


1 






11 


1 








12 


1 








13 




1 






14 


2 








15 




4 






16 


1 








17 


1 








IS 


2 








19 


1 


1 






20 


3 


8 




1 


21 


1 


1 






22 


1 


4 


1 




23 


1 


1 






24 











TOTALS 



GRAND TOTALS 



32 
127 



34 
125 



32 



- 14 - 

APPENDIX F 

Purpose 

To analyse the methods used to procure returns from non- 
resident moose hunters following the open season of 1956. 



Discussion 

The season ended on 
reminder went out on November 
7, 1956, and January 3, 1957. 



November 15, 1956, and the first 

21, with subsequent letters on December 



Of the 209 licenses sold in this District, 134 of the 
hunters are considered to have hunted in the Sault Ste. Marie District 
However, this report will deal with returns from all hunters, rather 
than the smaller figure. By using the larger totals, it is felt 
that the picture shown will be more indicative of the true situation. 

In graph No. 1, is shown the cumulative total of returns 
in the period October 15 to January 24. It is noted that the number 
of returns from the end of the season to November 2$ was very light. 
It is evident that this period of time, almost two weeks, produced 
very little towards the collection of returns. 

The timing of the second letter in relation to the first 
appears to have been almost perfect, as the high rate of returns 
was maintained. 



The third letter, which went to 23 hunters, contributed 
very little in the way of returns, and it might be that it could 
be overlooked in another year. 



I 

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suanq.ay jo "[eq-Oj, GATq.U"[ nmn 



- 16 - 

In graph No. 2 is shown the cumulative kill figures by sex, 
and the nil returns. 

R ecommendations 

(1) It is felt that approximately one week before the end of the 
season would be the ideal time to send out the first reminder. 
By this time a good many of the hunters would have either com- 
pleted their hunting, or made a decision against further hunting 
if they have not already been successful. 

(2) It would appear that two subsequent letters should follow at 
approximately two-week intervals. 

(3) The high rate of hunter success, as indicated by the low rate 
of returns from unsuccessful hunters, suggests that we should 
establish at least a six-week period from the end of the season 
before considering the survey finalized. 



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- id - 

APPENDIX G - Econ omic Survey of Non-res ident Hunters 

Total non-resident licenses sold . .... . . . .. 5 . « . .... ........ ■ . . . 209 

Number of questionnaires mailed . , . . . . ■ . « . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ■ . . <> . • 107 

Number of questionnaires returned . . . . . e c . • • o . » . . . . > « » . o . . . * . . 77 

Info rmation 

The 77 hunters report spending a total of 873 days away from 
home for hunting purposes. This average of 11.3 days per hunter 
indicates that for the most part the hunters availed themselves of 
either a two-week holiday period, or an extra long week-end and a 
week of holidays. 

The table indicating hunter effort shows that the successful 
hunter spent 5»5 days hunting and the unsuccessful 7.3 days. When 
averaged, it would appear that all hunters spent approximately 6.4 
days hunting, which would indicate that approximately 5 days were 
spent by each hunter for travelling, or other efforts not associated 
with hunting. 

While away from home, 53 hunters reported travelling a 
total of 33 ? 760 miles or an average of 637 miles per hunter. In 
addition to this mileage travelled, a good many hunters reported using 
other means of transportation such as private and commercial aircraft 
and railways. 

The main item of cost for the non-resident hunter appears 
to be food and lodging. The 77 hunters reported spending a total of 
$>9>125 ° r an average of |119.00 per hunter. 

Included in this total figure and having the effect of 
lowering the average, are returns from more than a few hunters who 
stayed with friends, or at their private cabins, with lower expenses 
being the result. 

The 77 hunters reported spending a total of ^5>#06. on 
guides for an average of : ;73.00 per hunter. Several hunters did 
not report any charges for guides, and it is assumed that their 
charges are included in the figures submitted by other hunters. 

The amount of money spent by the 77 hunters for miscellane- 
ous items total #4>5#4> or 'i'P^-OO per hunter. This amount was spent 
on such items as gas, oil, car repairs, etc. 

Discussion 

The amount of money spent on the three major items of 
expense total ^265.00. The cost of a non-resident moose license 
($101.00) should be added to this, giving an average total expenditure 
of slightly more than $3 50.00 per non-resident hunter. It is the 
opinion of everyone with whom this subject was discussed that this 
figure was definitely on the conservative side. 

The hunter success for non-residents was approximately 
fifty percent. 



- 19 - 

Using the costs arrived at from this survey, would indicate 
that each moose killed in this part of Ontario by a non-resident 
represents a capital outlay of at least ^700.00. 

The accuracy of these statistics and the small sample, 
limit how far these results may be extended. However, for the 
purposes of indicating how information of this type can be of value, 
the following calculation is included. 

Total monies spent by non-resident hunters in the Sault 
Ste. Marie District - 134 x 350 - ^46,9.00. 

Assume that five percent return on a capital investment is 
reasonable. This total expenditure can be considered as interest 
on a capital investment (i.e. total moose herd.) 

Therefore, from a non-resident hunter's viewpoint, our 
moose herd represents a capital value of ^93#?000. or approximately 
one million dollars. 



- 20 - 



AERIAL MOOSE INVENTORY PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, 1957 



by 

R. A. Ryder 



A Regional Fish and Wildlife Meeting was held at Port 
Arthur on January 16, 1957 with the intent of adapting new aerial 
census methods to the Port Arthur and Geraldton Districts. At this 
meeting Mr. Lumsden and Dr. Fowle outlined the general plan for 
aerial censusing which proved to be so successful in the Gogama and 
White River Districts in 1956. It was stressed that deviations 
from the general method might be desirable to meet with the variation 
in conditions found in different districts. 

Metho ds Employe d 

Arbitrarily, four sample plots were set up, three being 
located in a young, medium, and mature stand, the other in a new burn, 

The areas of the selected plots were 50, 53 > 67 and 64 
square miles, respectively. An area of 50 square miles was thought 
to be about the maximum that could be effectively covered in one 
day's flying, and the sample plots were limited accordingly. Three 
of the sample areas included more than 50 square miles so more 
effective topographical boundaries could be established. 

The four sample plots were flown once each between January 
29 and February 4» Two observers and one navigator were used on 
every trip except one when the navigator had to substitute as an 
observer. One mile flight strips were employed. Each strip was 
flown at approximately an $00 foot altitude and an air speed of 
about 90 m.p.h. until moose tracks were observed. The immediate 
area around the moose tracks was then circled intensively until it 
was decided that all the moose in the vicinity were spotted. Flight 
lines were then resurmd. The results of the first four flights 
using the strip method are summarized in the table below. 

Age of Area Flight Time Number of 

Stand Square Miles Over Plot (Hours) Moose Spotted 

Young 50 2,0 7 

Medium 53 1.3 1 

Mature 67 1.8 3 

New Burn 64 2.3 4 

It appears obvious from perusing the above data that a 
complete count of all the moose was not obtained from the first four 
flights. This was attributed to two principal factors? 

x A series of topographic maps showing plot locations accompanied 
the original ■ report , 



- 21 - 

(1) A deficiency in the method employed,, 

(2) Sample plots too large to cover efficiently in available time. 

It was found that after continuous observing on the plots 
for two hours, the efficiency of the observers declined as fatigue 
became more evident. This, coupled with the fact that a round trip 
flight of about two hours was necessary on two of the plots before 
observations began, resulted in a very tedious task. On February 5, 
after discussing our problems with Mr. Trotter of Sioux Lookout, we 
decided to modify our methods. An experimental flight was made with 
Mr. Trotter acting as navigator on a new plot selected close to the 
airbase. By circling a small area (roughly one square mile) inten- 
sively, a more thorough count was made. These small areas within the 
sample plot were determined by the navigator, depending on topogra- 
phical boundaries and then circled both clockwise and counterclock- 
wise until continued circling failed to reveal additional moose to 
the satisfaction of all observers. An arbitrary limit of 20 square 
miles was set up for the sample plots as it was found that a two 
hour flight could cover this area fairly intensively. As this method 
proved satisfactory, the former strip method was abandoned and three 
new plots were set up closer to the base of operations. These plots 
consisted of a young, medium, and a cut-over stand. In the latter 
the conifers were harvested leaving mature poplar and birch standing. 
Young poplar, birch and conifers were regenerating under the remain- 
ing older trees. The following table illustrates the moose counted 
to date on these three plots. 

Age of Area Flight Time Number of 

Stand (Sq. Miles) Over Plot (Ho urs ) Moose Spotted 

1st Flight 2nd Flight 1st Fli ght 2nd Flight 

Young 20.0 2.9* 1.4 26* 27 
Medium 20.5 1.7* 0.6 15* 16 
Cut-over 15.2 1.2 1.3 11 13 

x Segments of sample plot added together to obtain total 

Up to the time of compiling this report a satisfactory 
mature stand had not been located. This was due to the dense upper 
story found in most mature stands in the district, preventing an 
accurate census where the ground could not be seen over large areas. 
In the future we plan to obtain track and scat counts on these areas 
and compare them to track and scat counts in areas where the moose 
density has already been established through aerial surveys. In this 
manner we hope to obtain a relative estimate of moose densit}r in 
mature stands. From observations of our field men it is believed 
that the moose density on these mature stands is less than on any of 
the three other timber types surveyed. 



- 22 - 



Population Estimate 

While it is rather premature at this point to attempt a 
population estimate of moose in the district, a preliminary estimate 
will be made until more complete data are available. Figures on 
moose per square mile obtained from the sample plots will be applied 
to the same timber type for the whole district. For our purposes the 
areas of the timber types within the district can be broken down as 
follows s 



Mature (Over 60 years of age) 

Medium (30 to 60 years old) 

Young (Under 30 years of age) 

Non-forested Land (Agricultural areas, water) 

Total Area of District 



5,406 square miles 
4,729 square miles 
3,379 square miles 
3,379 square miles 



16, $93 square miles 



Considering non-forested land as non-productive moose 
habitat, we come up with the following breakdown of timber types 
and the moose densities in each. 



Timber 
Type 

Mature 
Medium 
Young K 
Cut-over 



Area 
(Square Miles) 

5406 
4729 
1759 
1620 



Calculated 
Moose Density 
(Per Square Mile) 

0.25 KK 
0.78 

1.35 
0.86 



Estimated Moose Population 



Calculated 
Population 

1351o5 
3688.6 

2374»7 
1393.2 

8808.0 



x Includes burn-overs and blow-down but excludes cut-over areas. 
xx Arbitrary figure assigned until more accurate estimate can 
be made. 

Thus the estimated moose population as a whole (including 
non-productive habitat for moose) is roughly one moose for every two 
square miles or about 9*000 moose reducing the calculated estimate 
to significant figures. The density of moose on potential moose 
habitat only (mature, medium and young stands) and excluding agricul- 
tural land and water areas would be about one moose per each square 
mile and a half. 

Cut-over areas (for the last twenty years) while actually 
young stands were considered separately because they differ from 
other types of young stands in that they are easily accessible. 
Consequently, the heaviest hunting pressure occurred on these areas. 
A significant difference on moose density showed up between the cut- 
over sample plot and the other young type sample plot which in this 
case was the result of an old burn. Moose densities of 1.35 and 
0.86 moose per square miles were encountered on these plots respec- 
tively. 



- 23 - 



Trappers' Po pulat ion Estimate 



One hundred and twenty trappers in the district estimated 
a moose population of 1,570 moose on 4,360 square miles of trap line. 
As it is impractical to break down the individual trap lines into 
timber types, we must apply the trappers* estimate to the whole 
district. This gives us a density of about one moose per three 
square miles or 5?631 moose for the district estimate. This is about 
three-fifths of the estimate obtained by means of the aerial census 
method. 

Obs ervations a nd Conc lusions 

1. All Observers agreed that a dull day was preferable for moose 
spotting to a bright sunny day. On dull days the trees did not 
cast a shadow and moose observation was simplified. All the 
observers noted that they were efficient for a longer period on 
a dull day probably because of the reduced glare. 

2. Early morning flying did not seem to produce as satisfactory 
results as midday flying. The period from about llsOO a.m. to 
Is 00 p.m. seemed to be the preferred time, 

3. Mature conifer stands were impossible to survey satisfactorily 
using the aerial method. As it was impossible to see the ground 
over large expanses it was likely that many moose would be 
missed. 

4e The trappers in the district have probably been underestimating 
the number of moose found on their traplines rather than over- 
estimating them as was previously thought. 

5. Young burn-over areas produce the best moose range in the district 
followed by young cut-over and medium types respectively. The 
status of mature stands in respect to moose is not definitely 
known although it is believed to support less moose than the 
three previously mentioned types. 

6. The moose population in the Port Arthur District is about 9,000 
moose or about one for every two square miles. 

7. The aerial survey method as outlined previously has been the 
most satisfactory method employed in the Port Arthur District 
to date for moose census work. 

A cknowledgments 

Without the untiring efforts of Pilot Art Burtt, this moose 
inventory would not have been possible. Thanks are due to Bob Trotter, 
Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, Sioux Lookout, for the sound advice 
and time which he donated to this project. George Whitefield acted 
as navigator on most of the flights and D. D v Agostini, G. Manore, P. 
Nunan, A. Rettie, R. Ryder, L. Sleeman, T. Swift and R. Trotter 
served as observers. 



- 24 - 



H 37 



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- 25 - 

H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 

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- 26 - 

H 37 

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090000009909*009009000 
0009000*90000000000000 
OOOO009OOO0OO00OO009OO 
OOOOOOOOOO£OOOO0«OOO0O 



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9 

o o o 

O 

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- 27 - 

H 37 

A erial Survey of Moose 

f lOL o o o o o c • o o c - ) o o • o o o « • o o • o • e o • o O 1 i j 6 90000 o^-oooootoo S C.j 1 1. fU O Iilllob 
JjOCo.L' lull oooosooooooQ^eno'raoeoeouttoooooooooocaoooreoooooeoooeooco 

Cover Type .IMiW.StS 1 ^ . iWed .hardwoods, c§nd cgni£e,rs 1 . . . * 

PilOt o o o A * n §U r ^ o . . o , » e c o r. , o o „ o UaVigatOr 9 » eQa cW^i^^Ci^W « . e 

Observers (right side) ....?% o^'W^o . . 

\ 1^1 u S 1 Q L- / oorooo&oe?>©o9o©oe#oeoo©©9090ooooo 

Air Speed t . e 9Qo r J,HS a y» «... <,*<,. * „ e e » Altitude . <, vQQ.4f §v . . 
Date Covered u £§W ?"?'o$7 c o . «. . » Noon Temperature » <,"*. 5°^» 
V/ind Direction ..VS§ti ••• o •••...•. • Wind Speed . „ » 8 ?Q o^.Est 1 

UIOUQ OOVer ooo&o~uoeecoooo<so»oo«o weiJ-ing oooooao 

Snow Depth ,.,??»6^.4». 



o©oeou*iooooooo©ooe«©ooc©oooo9©o©90ooco909 



o • o 

©O00900000OQ0OO0OOO 
OOO9O60OOO00900O6 

feet 

ooooeooooooooooooooooooo 

F 

OO©9O©90OO 

OPOOOOOOO0 

OO©O~6~OO0OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO9 

oooe?oooocooe«so«cooeocooooooo9rooocotoOoooo9 

Amount of Snow since last snow fall ....».<> „ e « . ». * «> « <> „ <> . „ „ . . „ „ ,. e 

-J- d V o OXIl^/^3 -.dob OXlCJW eoooooooooooetioooOQoooocoooooooooOQeooo&oooooo 

Time of arrival over the plot „ » . » . «> • JwQ"^ 6 ^ 1 * ° • - ° « o » . . . . » • o «, » « o <. . 

ooooooooooooooooooo 
o&ooooA'ooooodoo^oocoocoooeo^oooooeooooooooeooo 

000090990090030000009 



Time survey completed on plot ....•• .2 «?5 •fifths » • 
Number of Moose seen o»ooe<.&«»ooo»o«o a .««o. oeo 
Notes o . . • . V3lY,3.P9rU°n Qf c tft§ \&gi§,fil<rt s . . 



Aeria l Survey of Moose 

rlUO oeoooo4r99c , 3ocoo9oe«o««oo»«eo OlZG • o a o 6 8 o o o o o » • o • o S(|udr', M _L _L * ;.- O 

■ij v' l- C:l b .L U I 1 O9OoVV&9lT9^^Ve>e9OOOQOOOO99')OO9CO9l)OO99O9eoOOOOpOOO0OO9«9 

Cover Type .^i-W.St.Wtf J Miyed, hardwoods, and conifers ] . , . o . . . . . 

1 liOli ooooo«oV6eVvte's / aae«e»OQO«e» i' aVlgaL Or oosnSeo9'ooo«oSoos*e» 
UDSv^rVerS \ngnu o 1 Q G J oao-rSonS.sV'o'es'aooooecooeonosooeacpoo.o.ao 

f l pft Birip) Pe Nun an 

\ _L '_- J U OlUC / •0990009009 r09099099C-e909.900e090000 0000900 

Air Speed • 6 .^OsPj vs «... • « •> . o 6 • o Altitude , .(«?Vv.t??L.. 

Bate Covered • .??]?8 »??.£' 57 <. ••«..<> • Noon Temperature ,,.t$.? 

Wind Direction^ . .¥§§t •. o o o o e o » o . . Wind Speed , ..i^.'FsBsl's >. 

wJLUU.Q UOVGr OoV~J~'o~0©Q09O0090009OO)0 ^Gllln^ 0000000000900000009090 

OxlUW UCjJ vll oooo'ooQOftooooaoeoooeoogooooeoooooooeoo co*«ooooooooooo 

Amount of Snow since last snow fall .o«a«»oo«» s ..<,*oeoc*«...«<>>° 

l-dy O SlilCS laSL OllOW 009090r)00099*OO9OaO9eO9099 

Time of arrival over the plot » « . .lis «?Q.§g r i 1 s . . . 
Time survey completed on plot e . <> e i??3Qo8o m 
Number of moose seen . , • <> .l 1 ?. iVwif.Pi9^1 



00e090f>90999«OO9 O O 9 O O O 0990099009990 OOOO90 • 

00990009900000000 

009000000900009000000 

COOOOOO9O9O9OOOOOOO09O 

Notes , 



0900000>03i>09tfeo090000000COOOCOOOOOOCOOOC«0900000rOO'900 



- 2d - 



AERIAL MOOSE SURVEY, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, MARCH, 1957. ] 

by 

R. H. Trotter 



(1) General Remarks 

The survey was started January 23rd and the eighth plot was 
completed on February 14th. A recheck was made of plot seven on 
February 20th.. All flying since that date has been on the cross 
country flight lines mapping in moose concentrations and a survey of 
the Caribou Crown Game Preserve. A total of 24$ moose, IS caribou 
and 25 deer were observed over the plots which range in size from 16 
to 60 square miles, totalling approximately 264 square miles. 

At the start of the survey in January, with about 20 inches 
of snow on the ground and fresh snow partially covering the old tracks, 
conditions were fairly good, but by February 14th with very little 
added snow, it was becoming difficult to tell fresh tracks from old 
ones. 

The weather was clear and cold most of the time, ranging 
from zero to -20°F. 

We had some trouble keeping the windows clear on frosty 
mornings but by noon they were always clear, frost scrapers were used 
when necessary,, Some type of hot air window defrosters should be 
installed in aircraft used for this type of work. The suggestion from 
Gogama of turning the heat down and opening the vents is just too 
uncomfortable, the crew lose interest when they get cold and when 
that happens you may as well go back to base. The frost shields 
suggested by Geraldton District may be O.K. if they are large enough 
to allow for a good range of vision from different angles. We have 
them on the otter but they seem to cut down the area of vision and 
when the windows clear off the black edge of the frost shield is 
distracting to the observer c 

Method Used 

The original method of drawing flight lines on the plot map 
and covering the area on each line over the plot was abandoned in 
favour of a block in method whereby we do a small section of the plot 
at a time. When we feel that all the moose in this block have been 
counted the area is coloured in and another block marked out, the 
same procedure is continued over the entire plot, or till it is time 
to quit. We have decided on plots which can be finished in one day. 



A series of topographic maps showing plot locations accompanied 
the original report. 



- 29 - 

This allows for less error in recounts, especially if the snow is not 
too deep and the moose are wandering around a lota The plots should 
not be over 40 square miles and the blocks within the plot previously- 
mentioned, range in size from one to two square miles depending on the 
topography of the area. Streams, lakes, timber types, roads, ravines, 
ridges etcetera are used as outside boundaries for the blocks. 
These are generally flown from the outside in, on the pilot 9 s side 
to the center, then reversing and circling from the inside out, on 
the navigator 9 s side. This gives the observer on the top side a 
chance to relax while the low side looks it over and allows for a 
double check on the entire area. A good average height seems to be 
around seven hundred feet. We often fly lower but very seldom higher. 
If a plot falls in rough terrain where hills are high and there are 
deep ravines another location should be picked for two reasons, first 
as a safety precaution and secondly because moose are too hard to 
count in such an area. 

Popul ation D ensity 

A number of flight lines from the base to the various plots 
have been flown at BOO feet. All moose concentrations were noted 
and plotted on the map as to track density. This gives us a general 
picture of the moose range in the hunted part of our District. We 
find that after a couple of weeks of this work one can be quite sure 
of the moose density just by comparing the track concentrations 
mentally, to those which were observed over the plots where the 
actual moose count took place. All moose, deer, caribou and wolves 
observed along the flight lines were also recorded on the map. 

The more time we spend on these low level flight lines 
across country recording moose and concentration areas, the more I 
am convinced that it is a very essential part of our moose inventory. 
It is the only way to get a complete picture of the whole area and 
I believe an experienced crew can say without any hestitation when 
they are flying over an area that is supporting over a moose per 
square mile. We have double checked this by recording from the obser- 
vers as they crossed plots of known density on the flight lines. 
There was no way for the observers to know when they are crossing 
these areas and yet when density maps are compared later, they have 
always corresponded where the flight lines crossed the plots. That 
is to the extent of whether the population is over or under one 
moose per square mile. 

Habitat 

Evergreen stands take longer to check than deciduous stands 
and we are still not sure what percentage of the moose in such areas 
can be counted. If the animals stand still or are lying down in these 
stands, it takes a very sharp eye to spot them. The population is 
lower in most of these stands because there is a shortage of prefer- 
red food. However they offer excellent cover so that if the stand 
is close to a feeding ground such as an old burn, cut over or blow 
down that has rotted, we must assume that a large percentage of the 
animals using this feeding ground could be in the evergreen stand 
when they are not feeding. 



- 30 - 

Our highest moose concentrations were found in cut over 
areas, with burned areas second, young mixed stands third, deciduous 
stands fourth, with mature evergreen stands supporting the least 
number of moose probably because of the shortage of preferred foods 
where the crown density is such that the light can not penetrate to 
the ground. 

There is little or no new growth and no food for the 
animals. Any moose found in these areas are just passing through in 
search of new feeding grounds. We have recorded moose densities in 
cut over areas over two animals per square mile, with burned over 
areas up to one and one-half per square mile and mixed up to one per 
square mile. Other stands vary from nothing to one animal per two 
or three square miles. 

H abits 

The moose observed to date do not appear to have any 
definite time for feeding or sleeping as we have noted some lying 
down and some feeding in the same plot at any time of the day. Soma 
run when the aircraft flies low over them, and some never stop 
eating, some will get up and others in the same area will lie in 
their beds, not paying any attention to the aircraft. At least a 
dozen moose were observed still carrying their antlers in February. 
It was noted that in cut over areas moose preferred to use the old 
draw roads to travel on rather than wander aimlessly through the 
woods, when going to a new feeding ground. 

Conclusions 

We feel that the method used for censusing moose from the 
air has been successful and that it should be continued each year 
over most of the same plots and some additional ones. 

A browse survey should be attempted on some of the plots 
where the moose density is highest to try and determine what the 
carrying capacity of the range is. 

We feel that we have a moose per square mile in most of 
our hunted areas. 

Of the eight plots checked, No. 7 could be called a failure 
and No. 6 a poor count. However, the survey on the other six plots 
was a success and we hope to do Plot No. 6 over again this winter. 

Based on my observations here and at Gogama, I believe that, 
where moose are plentiful, a higher percentage of the animals can be 
counted from the air. The main reason for this is over browsing, 
food is not readily available, so the animals have to spend more 
time on the move searching for it. In the less heavily populated 
areas the food is usually available and they spend more time lying 
down. 



- 31 - 

I have noticed that in nearly all of the high concentration 
areas moose have been standing or walking,, The feeding ground is 
usually quite open and if the animals are up around there is no 
trouble spotting them. 

More cross country flight lines should be mapped but we 
probably won 9 t get much more done on it this winter. 

No. 1 Pl ot 

Three flights have been made over the area consisting of a 
preliminary flight to establish boundaries and two flights of 
approximately three hours each, to count the moose. 

The plot was flown by circling the outer edge and gradually 
working in to finish in the center. All the cut over and most of 
the mixed stands were on the outer part of the plot, with the center 
almost completely covered by dense stands of spruce and jack pine. 
By starting on the outside, we were working the best area the first 
day spotting a total of 33 moose. On the second day only 13 were 
noted. The reason for the low count on the 25th was the high 
percentage of dense evergreen stands which had to be covered. 

The total count for this plot was 46 moose but we feel sure 
there was over a moose per square mile on the plot. 

There is a lumbering operation going on at the north end 
of the plot but it does not seem to be bothering the moose any as 
there was no noticeable difference in the tally in that area. 

This plot was picked because it is in a heavily hunted area, 
With the Red Lake Road as the East boundary, it is easily accessible 
to hunters. If it could be checked thoroughly each winter we could 
probably get some valuable information pertaining to the effect of 
hunting pressure on the moose population. 

We plan to recheck at least part of this plot and probably 
change the boundaries to cut down the size to where it can be checked 
in one days flying. 



- 32 - 

Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



Date .January. ?i-*.^957 

H 37 

A erial S urvey of Moose 

Plot ..l J "Oj.l. .Flight. U9«.l, .0 .... , Size . .„.60« ••....». .square miles 

LOCat iOn • o.*V i VV9yV3-r§-v-B'o».oo.990coc>o.o9<».ooo»e*90.oe<>»9.o.9C9.«..9 

Cover Type e o4xed r , and. CVt . 9Y9r teckpise.3&d. §PWG§.Dre3oQ4s3$isg 
Pilot . . ,y« . §P§lg h t o . o » c . oe •• o p . Navigator . ,& 3 . #» oTrp££er. 
Observers ( right side) <> • . o . o^ 1 4-4-eo«e96o.oooo«o9.9».o9o.ooy..o«o.j.o 

\ J. e J. t SiCleJ O O 9 i V B 9 Y V V V V » 9 • • ? 9 » • C » • • « O • © . • O O a 9 fl 

Date covered .^nyary e ^«.i957 9e « . Noon temperature . . olP.kelQW, . . , 
Wind direction ><,?»..,..,...„.... Wind speed ... 19, m a Pets • .«,.,.. « . 
Cloud cover . • . r^llo « = o . • . e . . . * • • . Altitude . . • . e •v99o££ < ?'ko . • 

uIlOW Cieptn e.coVo.coooteeeoo a. f. eo*». o©o*..oo...noo9»99.e««9o«oec»90 

DaVS SinCe -LaSU SnOW f»oooo'»o < t><S<?9009oo3 9oooo«o»e'9i-, oec«e»oooo9oeoo90 

Time of arrival over the plot .„ . .lis 15o3s I P8 .« o o f ».. t .. .......*.. . 

Time survey completed on plot . c . » , ?» 59. P3 m a o . » . « . . -= o ....... ... 9 . 

i'l UmDer OI MOOSe Seen oeeeon-*?-<i090C'Ooeo*ee':*.2»'>co9eoe«c?>*ooeo.oo*eo» 

Motes. ^9^. h ali\9l > o't^.pl9kc , ? 1 ?Pl§t§^8,«Th§? > ? §§^§^.to e be e as... 
Wny e m99s§ o ;y^ng y dQvnan^0§ 9 §ft§? n 99n o §s o the o a fi m 8o .Qyif,e oo 
§cWmt§3r 9?^§9^,VG^§,n9t94 a §nd^^§9t^c^s o v^§ 6 C9nfV5tng a4 
intense, §taa^§9.9 I i9oQ^i- b 9y,v/er§ noiied tQday8 98 ^Qgse yards 
VQ?§,?§Q9^§4«9Vo ; TUg h ^ n : line frgm.§igyx 1;9 the 9 pig^ e 



> . 9 

o . e e . e 



9 . . « o « . 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 
Date .«J&nua^y ?5^lja 1957o...«. 

H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 

Plot . -NOo . 1. .flight'. ?. c o o o . o . o . Size ...->c99 r<,. e ... square miles 

J-jOCcdUlUil oo^V^V*V , voVvVVooo^«ceooeoooeo«tto©oo©oooooaoc'e»oco'»i9or>ooot5«o 

Cover Type .§5?wce, <J§ekplne 5 .4§P9n and ; cu$ , oyer areas,. 

Pilot P oyS-rrYo^P^trSt^ a o 9 . 9 9 . . « . 9 Navigator • . e ?« *$? •TrottSV. « . » . . . 

UUbSrVcI S \iXgnU SlCie/ . 9.9999 o"'»Tro»»<>9».o»o».ooeococ, oeiaone.o. 00999* 
^ 161 U S1U6 / .eo.caoo..VVcc.9CO#c900^crFso^C9e.oo.oeoo...9 

Date covered .vf^^Yo?- 5 *. 1957. « . . Noon temperature . a ,?9.^9l9¥ 

Wind direction . . ¥•*?«, ^sPiks » e * . . « T Wind speed .,l?,? 1 »P.I?a.,.M.c t i.. 
Cloud cover . . . P ^ll o e <> . e . » . . « « ■> « Altitude •».ow9.l'^t,,a».., 

^nOW QepLn • »OoTc'5"o3'94'i?00«)9.99999009a.9»0«5.00.00©.0 

— 'ciys since lasc oiiow o o . « 9 « o ?.-e n i< • o ^ . 9 » e . o o . o .1 o n e . . o 9 

Time of arrival over the plot ..^l-yi^ o 

Time survey completed on plot . » • .?23«?. e • • • • e • -. • • , * • 

Number of Moose seen .., 8 IJ, l ,, i; ,,...o «...••« 

Notes. N3_ne 3 of^h^ moose, were, lying, ^OW*. , Today Js.fllglrtoWSo oyer 

tbg.pgntgroQfoth^.plPto where. the tWber c is o heayj.est, o ,T^l9.. 
prpbap].y ac99\ints c for the o ;9V s t&llyeo e ^9Virt§§n c deeroV§r§o.c9 
5P9ttg^, 3 othis p9npl.udedaJ9 C o?.pl9t 6 Vlth J a9tptal.,Q| , e 4-6 e )P99s? s 
We^PgX.sure^iiere.are^yer.^Q.gn.^he^lgtj.^.tP^^l.Pf.?^. 

£eer were o a.].s9 o n9ked . ,yo caribgu a a . , . 



ooo.o.oeooooo. 
noeeo.e.. 9(9*9 

09O»eSO0O99»O9 
09000099990.09 
CO99OO..O9.00O 



- 33 - 



d at e . . Fpfcnwy. 7,? . J-557. 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



o • a • • o • 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 



o • o o o 



000000000000009 



Size W. ... o .... square miles 



rlOt a . • o . c 

Location .Wfr3-t ,em W.l J §^£. ......... ...».»*o, ••*.... 

Cover Type . . ,fe^, .P9Pl§Fj . Jac&pine.an$ spruce] 

Pilot •,.vi.§]?giSl?to ,.....». Navigator . . .?» .tf» .§t9£e e 

Observers (right side) ...••••.•.a.ro.s.c... 

(left side) « . « e « «v j «?« . vwWW. t . t « . » . a » o « . 

Date covered .5"'§^ r V§i r y.7tl?8 « • 1957 Noon temperature .,.7 5...,. 
Wind direction... .IfiW Wind speed e o ^l^c^ePat* 



9ooooc<0oeO099 

10*C #QO»«OOO0 
Q909U99O 

©o^ooeoooocoooooooo 



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» • » • 



•> o 



Nil 



e o o o 



ooaooooooooooooo 



Altitude 



r o 
..je.n.W.e............. 

8©©...ft.o».<3ooo...o.3.ooo.oe©.©w.©o.. 
©...,3.c..oe**«.o.o©««o©oe©. ©•.•••©•&•. 



Cloud cover 

Snow depth ...... .?3,l n £h§ I 3 * . 

Days since last snow . ..©l a $ a Y 

Time of arrival over the nlot .1Q.35»...) n U „, M „4.„ ^^ i,„,„i, 

m . i 4. j x t 4. i^«nn \ 1 hour stop for lunch 

Time survey completed on plot .•4-2.YV. . . . ) l 

Number of moose seen ..... 39. •••*..•• 

M n fpqc Weather was slightly warmer than previous flights,, and . moo se 

§§§^4.t9.^§.TOYing.§?QVnd.ip9re, ,yg 8 deer.pr a c5Lrit>Qu 6#<loe . 
9 b §e?Y§4? .,^g§^oWQ§§.9Qy^gd,w§r§ t g^§§rYgd o cl9§e c t0.1ali:es 
Within. ,plg£ . where .more. gp§n ,arga§ .wgrg ^gga^ed ,„ .Tk§ ..... . 

estate .ugr^h „and . §gu^h gnds. 9 gC.plo^ .wgr g „ £air;y . heavy .... 

5BtV«§.§nd.i^ ^5.4i^Uculti.t9.9 1 35^Y§.^ny.iP9Q5S»..^e1iV^<?i3 
Wb4ti§my4 ,§n4 .Qg^i .Ufc«3 c ^hgrg ,wa§ a .hgayy ©§t;and c g£ . jag^ping 
Vfcich .ma^g gb§grY^igr ; § .di££igu;^ » . . , 



C...O9S...0.0 



9 <", ...... 



Date . ..E§kWJ£¥«fok».i957 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



e o o . . 



H 37 

Aerial Surveyof Moose 



......... square miles 

O4O00990OOOO 9 O O © .# O 



9O99Ooeo3ooorooo9o*0 

O O 

oeooo0oooo090oo0o0ooeo00OQ 



0CU9900 



oocoooeoAoooo 



rlOL ©o«90-?,>a9oooo&ooeoeoooooo»oeo OlZG 9 o o 1? S» 9 

Location Q943S. v^? a .Q r i"t * 

Cover Type . . . .Qut ,9Y§£ 9 §nd. .m^xgd. . , , 

Pilot .. ferry, ^eigh^, ............ Navigator . .§» .tf» „Tr9U§r , . 

Observers (right side) . „ ,«J« .4s .§ h § nn 9 n . 

(left side) , . .§. e H, 8 .§^9Q9. 
Date covered .£§^ru§ry . §^ h »•«...» . Noon temperature . ©..,?4- 
Wind direction ..„ .^Vt^c ......... . Wind speed . . • JQ • I 3?*B *fe 

L/lOUCl COVer o.~d~a3««e..o«.oov..co 

Snow depth . . . • ??.i 1 JS&§§. o e m , o o o 
Days since last snow ......«,.?.. 

Time of arrival over the plot . . 
Time survey completed on plot 



» * _l_ .»..». v-«. wl/vj vva o 9 v n 9 © » »A« O 

Altitude ^9V...o 



« . . 



o o . 

o . . ■ « 



a e o . e 



21 



o » o • 



© (? 9 rt 



ceaoeeooooe^oosoeooe 



i>e«oe«o0O0o«o9o«o 

O0C'»0OOOO*OCOOCO0 

09900000000 

9(r0oe0sc-oeo0Od 
9090999990099000© 



9 9 



© © 



♦ C 9 
O 9 C 9 O 
O O » 9 O 

• 9 © «, 



O 9 9 9 9 



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-* 9 9 9 O 
9 9 

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Number of Moose seen 

Iotess T h §re is a lumber camp on the north boundary of this 

i. VU UUO O0Q©9©9OOOOOOO00©OOOO-l9©90OOOOO9oOO , 3OOOO9tf9 0>0 9O9OOC'9O 

§^4 .ragn, gijti^ing.pvlp 4n c t^hg B arga s e ^hg e mQg§>- ,§ggragd t9 ,bg 9 

y§9d e -tg o ngi§g e §gd.v^rg.har4,,^g,di§^yrb Jo gygn a whgn wg a Ci^ 
19W.9Y9S ^hgm,. , „Mq§£ .gf^hg .r&99§9 .wgrg .lying ,4gwn a ,gng . . . 



O990eC04 



OO9O0«0OOO9OC©OO 



- 34 - 



Date . . *J&PlWy. 3JL>. JSJ%. 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 



o e 



o 9 o 



oeca^o.oooe.oo...... 

^...ooa.aooooo.a.aeaooao 
■ • a 
• o • • • 

n«o.o».«oooo otnoooo.ooo 



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a • • • 



PlOt . -a ■ • • • • o V c »o...aoo.*.coooae. blZe • • • • • JV« • • a • • • • SC|Uar6 
LOCatiOn • . . . tf !•£&§£ 9$ tf .W^S* oUy"&§?iQ. a a a e o . co.o fc a.,,c.oo. 

COVGr 1 ype o o vV4 V ( o- ( tfo9»V-looo..»»c.o.*oo».ie»oooo.o«.©as.»e«.ooo..o 

Pilot ...... «<J« oCvilitQ^o o « o o •• e o Navigator . • &• .tfe c Tr9tke£ . . 

Ub servers (right side) . , . • .v T pl.in §]jannQn . , . • • » <, . o . . . . . 

(left side) . „ „ . «5§rl.§"t9 n §o .»• . « . o ...... « . . . 

Date covered . <J§ n WO'o31§t<* .1957. Noon temperature ...76 

Wind direction .^ori^. . 9 . • c c . . . 

Cloud cover ..ovi4-ooo.ooeeoa.9oo 

Snow depth • • . e . .^ici^Qt 1 ^. . • • . « 

Days since last snow ..i^.tJ^ 

Time of arrival over the plot . . 

Time survey completed on plot .. 

Number of Moose seen ....... 5Q.. 

Notes: Ttis.5-og994.i > g§diag 8 grgund 9 wU^.Y§5'Y. UUle. QQYW 
WW*..¥QQ§§.V§r<3.§§§y.tQ.spQt;». 



o o e e 

« • 
.... 
» e . . 
o o » * 
o a o e 
o.e. 
. e a 
. . e . 

1936 



OO.G'J.t.OO 



3.000 



oo.ro 



mile: 

. e a 

o • . 

• o e 

0.0 

so. 

• 90 

• 00 
0.0 

.00 

« o 

n o o 

.00 

0.00 

e e a 9 o 
aeo*. 



n fl fp February 1st, 1957 

JUct U C • ea.oooco'.a.coija.ooo 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 






square miles 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 

riOt .. vVfooooc... o.e.o... of. 00000 l) 1 Z ' :, ..a.V. 

Location . . . P$ d §l?0te i^P* . P£t* 

Cover Type .... ?Vt. QY9V. Vtetf. £op].ar, . ?Pn i P?o' . ^PljPo-o 1 ? 

Pilot . . J* .Cylljtpp. o . . a • • o . . . . . . Navigator . • •^#.P*oTrPtt?r. 

Observers (right side) , . . . d$W. StWPOQ 
(left side) ..... iterl. Stone. .. . 

Date covered . FpP#o J-St* #. 3-957. o . . . Noon temperature . ..7»?... 
Wind direction _• West. ............. . Wind speed . .. • p # Qi,p,Ji f- . . 

Cloud cover . . 143-. Altitude — $0 

OnOW Qepon . . . o . e~6-o e«o..o«.ea.e*.«o..«9 

Days since last snow .....+, ... 00.00.0.. 

Time of arrival over the plot ,..3-3^. . 

Time survey completed on plot . «, . 5-PPP. . 

Number of Moose seen ?l c . . o c f . o o o 

Notes. i<P. PPpse. were. Ppppryed. jr. t^e. put. oyer, area, r . the. highest. . 
PPnpentra$4pn. was. ajLpng. t£ c e. .edge. of. the, put. oyer. ar o ea, o 7. . o 
Pf.tfrp. 2J-, PPPPP. PP£PJ7.ed were. iJ-ying. dpwri^. we c feel, that. abpu£ 
$5K Pf . tP-P. mppse. pn. t.ijs. pJLp£ werp, spptfed, 



900 

• «»o«*«oo««wo:«»e»oo»ocoooo 

-5 

....V. ....... 

«■ . • . 

a ««a'ra'.eee..co<>»o.... 
..o..««o9.o»o..o..oo..c 
oo.o.o.o..e«.oeceeeo.o. 
.O09.oe&oaoooo^3.0o..oa 
.. 000. ...oooooo... 009a. 
oo.ooo.aosaoaaaooaoaeoo 



oaoooo.acejoooo. 



- 35 - 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



o • 

6 • 

• • 

© • • • 



Date ..February. !?£&•«. 1957 

H 37 

Aerial S u rvey of Moos e 

Plot d .••••••o. Size 2$ square miles 

Lo cat ion . . . §§Y£ n £ , 1>&9 . $93d ....... . . . . . 

Ll OVer 1 yPe • •Jy»Vo9»ycoVys«6.V"0»»OOOes.O»seaO»0.e.e9.«e»Oa.S«»0«OS*e 

Pilot ..y!,§B§l^.«...c......... Ilavigator , c5s .^a .Trotter. ...... . 

Observers (right side) . . .<J« e^h^WQ «...,. . o..o 

\J_eit SlCleJ .... 9e.es oVo.r.c...9a«.........«...e.o...e.ooe 

Date covered .£§&£¥$£¥. IStth ••1957 Noon temperature . ..3Q.§ b °YS 

Wind direction ... .^i «^y. • 3 , o ..... o • Wind speed ,,,Uj»P?bt,,,,,„, ,. 

wlOUQ COVer .ooras.aeaeeeos.oco.a Altl t>liU(i • o.WVeeoo»ao«s.*«»3s.oe 

OnOW QepTI>n e . • "« oo»e.c's.a..e».e.ao.«e»«o.s«c» s s . s e a cones, on. •*...••.. 

uays since iaso snow .o.as.eo. « i. o ii tr«ct> / o..eeo.oc.o.«ss...oe.9.e.... 
lime oi arrival over uns plot • «eo-&$o»oosoeooo.ecooooo.o..ooooooe»». 
Time survey completed on plot . . .1515, . . . . « c . ...... ..*•«...».. 

iiUniDer Ol I-IOOSO Seen 0aecoo...oacoa»eoes.seosaoaae.eoce«oaa..cca..oo 

Notes. ^QQs^ 9 w^r«- 6 har4,^g e §§^ Q §s^her§,v/§re e a 8 lg^ 8 g^ e eY§rg^§^§ 

§i&3ll .SYersreSQS » .^he ,mgg§s „wgui4 .*M .n?gYe » <,!§§§ «,^W .teU 

tbe .^99§§ o^§£§ . §bq^«4» o .lbs .siss *q£ .tb§ .Blgti ,^g .U¥Us4 . 
beQsusg.gf ,crwij.4^§i^y» . ..i.lQv.lsYsl.striB.swUs.Ws-s 

flOW aQQ .^h§ rg^urn „1;rip e ^g .SlWS .IjQQljgu^ » ,3Q4 .311 ,r&gg§g . . . 
CgrjQ^nl;ral;ign§ 8 we^ 9 i;aUi$4 .«Q ,tibe .rflSB % , ............. ..... . 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 

Plot Name . .y^WiW.WSS ,7 Size • • . .!§ • • • square miles 

Location . .Hamilton o Lake 

FRI Cover Type . M% Q A 

Notes on Ground Cover . . .$ ^YY.WlSSS^tt . 

Crew Pilot . Ji . .Sge^ght e o eo0 Navigator . . .3* .H. .Trotter 

UUoLI V Cl X lj-,111; O JL d. t3 • 0.999 _o, 0999aoo99C9e9*99o*9 9999399 

Obsprvpr Ipft si rip E, H. Stone 

uu "Ci vex -I.CLUOJLU.C a«eeaeooooa«oaae».aesc.o.es«.«o.e 

Air Speed . . .iV.^sS .Vs Flight Altitude 

Date . . so . .«E<3kru3ry # 13£ba» .1957 

Time of Arrival Over Plot . ... .1Q45. 

Time Survey Completed . . . c . . . . . .153Q . . 

Temperature on Plot . . .12 .§6qy§ . . . Snow Depth of Plot ,?3 •4 I 1<5 1 J^5 
Days since last snow .1. ."kr^SSi . . . Amount Falling 

brUSl/ vOnQl ulOil coo o tf"o""4" .«o«oe.o....o..<>o.s.. a ...... 

Wind Speed • .3 .^Dsbs •••.. ••....• « Wind Direction. . . A *W 

Cloud Cover . .Ull. ......... ... . c . Ceiling r i41 

Visibility Conditions . .G&Y"* 1 



eoocccooc 09900999900 co999O909C99O99e99*9*9«9«99«*eoo99 



0990C939094009»9990r'> 



99999999»0©9 

99000090999900 

Trotter 

00C90O99O999 

• 9OO9999909C90 

• 9O990990«00«9 

$00 

«.a.ss.a..s..o 
aef.cs.se. oose 



...e>....... .................. 

o . 
......... ......a 

oooees.s«*o.s.o.s.s..a...e...«o_..3..a...e. 

...esse... 
..... ft"?.. ....... ....a. 

d^p.. .Geooeaaaa.aeo.ee. ....... a ..aa.s«.e. 

Number of Moose Seen 



«oooo.o'a.eoceeeaseeooeeee..esc....e»coo«.co.o. 



Notes. TWs £ e Yery,hard o glo£ # tg o coun^^ 

w4ersr9v^b.vl?i^.stfY§r§.§,l^.Q?.^§ •«?§». ^?.fisw«. 
cf.tl?rge.«i9 o §§4§.Q9t.si9§«.^^.V^.wr^^.QW^^.Q^.^Q§^ 

Pr^§§n^ c gn ti^.Pl9^...T 1 5 ( e ^^.^^^.Bl^^ t oY.o.f a^^Q 1 .^-, 



e . . . a 
a ..a... .a 



-36- 

Plot No. 7 

This plot is situated near Hamilton Lake and comprises 
an area of approximately 16 square miles. About one-third of the 
plot had been burned over about 20 years ago and the rest runs 
heavy to spruce and jackpine with some mixed stands. 

The first time this plot was surveyed on February 13th 
only three moose were recorded, quite a number of tracks were noted 
and it was felt by the crew that there were at least ten moose on 
the plot. 

On February 20th two days after a heavy snow storm when 
conditions were ideal for this work the plot was again surveyed, 
this time four moose were recorded. Fresh moose tracks in isolated 
areas indicated that there were at least nine moose on the plot, 
this would be about one moose per two square miles. 

There was too much heavy cover to allow accurate counting, 
but we hadn't much choice of plots in that area. The plot was 
established because it was desirous to have a sample plot close to 
the Savant Lake road and the plot was as good or better than most 
of the area along the road for observing moose from the air. 

The crew feels sure that there is a moose per two square 
miles on this plot. 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 



Plot Name .... c?*. ..... <,»<>. c.. e .. Size .....16........ square miles 

l-i(J L CI 1/ lOll .cV^^nyvVVV<)V'3's'e'9eee.ea.«coeeo«oe&e<»ooc3.e&oc.«aee.oesc3ecf>. 

FRI Cover Type . .qti*§4.tem.eYem§e9.§W§.WW. .......... . 

I'JOX/CS On LrrOUilQ uOVt3r eo..a«oeo.ue.a*oea.o««oe».c'.a.eaoaecneo<oaeeos 

Crew Pilot . .tfs .§Bi?iglrt. .,♦... . Navigator . . . .5s . H . .I r 9"t£§ r .. „ . . . 

Observer Right Side .....'js^t.^^W?.......,.,........,,,.....,,., 

U D S e r V er lj U I L DIGS ooo*.V3or8eVsV«yo.<ieoe.«.o.oe......<>«o.o.oo..»oa 

Air Speed . . . .„,. t ...<„••... . . . . . Flight Altitude . . .§99,, . . . . . . . * . » 

Date t ?Qru§.ry ,§vtiV6 ..IV^,,,,,,,.,,^,, ,„„„, 

Ti ;f ie of Arrival Over Plot . .. .i?3Q. . .. . c . . . . ,.. a ... 

Time Survey Completed •• •W45. ........ «. 

Snow Depth on Plot ... 

.. .3 ....«.» Amount Falling 

999090099999099990*999999090999 



Temperature on Plot 
Days Since Last Snow 
Crust Condition 



o & o e o 



Cloud Cover 
Visibility Conditions 
Number of Moose Seen 



Wind Speed . ... *3 .VsBifcj ......... . Wind Direction ..§j.W: 



90999000*0 

« o • e • o 

9 O 9 C O 
9 9 9 9 9 9 

© O 9 • 9 

99*099*909 

0*09099999 

9 9 9 9 9 ^Cli.lilti 9999*99&**9999Q*99990 



Ceiling . 



9«* 

9 9 9 



*O09pO999i1*O99O0O99999O9OdC09O')OO99OO9**9 
• •••OCO99999e'9990C9O999*99eO9*rO99O9'»9O99- 

Notes. ^CW^.fUg^.VYtfV.ttiS.DM.tQ.^Y.^.SW^^^.^???,^. 
tt^y.l 1 ??^. in. ar9as e wter v \U.is o ^99. d§nse o to, see. through., 

fr°Qi.fr§§l?.tr&^5.in is9^§4.P9c^§.T.v§.§^m^§.^^ r §... 

^^.?i£^.t9.;9.ai99S9.9y 8 ^^,el9t 5 ..f99Vt one„moose.Der e t 



wo 

... 



...«»•«. .co.tnoc.o 



- 37 - 

H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 

Plot Name ...$«••••.••••. o ...... « Size .... .?6. ...... . square miles 

Location . .Sapate^fce. CSgutbotfC.ta^irwgl * . . c . . o .,,...... * ..... .o 

FRI COVer TypG a • VVV ©gY 1 tf£ , oo»o....e60»o«o»aao«oo34.e.oe«c.9«««««iooo«« 

Notes on Ground Cover ..*ooo.»eae>eoo.e».o«eoa.oe«.»o...r..a..o..oe* 
C rew Pilot . .Us .Speight, . e . . . . Navigator , .5s .Us .T r Qtt§r. . . . . . . 

Observer Right Side • .<Is r4i> .§U§ nn 9Q. .... c . c .... * o c » «, ....... Q o • 9 . •• • 

Observer Left Side . . .5s &V8 .vt-go^o » . . . o • <» o • » * . . . . . . • • . a . e « . . o . . . • . 



c.o.a.aaaea.aca. 
«eo.r>«eaoc.o..*o93. 



CO.©..«0O09OO 

os-eooooeoooeo 
...eeeoeoa... 

..?5. inches.. 



t»00DJ0O#-3S»o 

.§.....; 



Air Speed ..... n .*a<»«caap.o*c e «.9. Flight Altitude • 

Date .....a.. .£et>ryary Htb» . ,1957 . « . 

Time of Arrival Over Plot . ...11QQ. 

Time Survey Completed ........ 8 153Q 

Temperature on Plot . .!Qo$k°Y§. . . . Snow Depth on Plot 

Days since last snow ...1 Amount Falling .*. 

UrUSt OOnQltlOn .««o.r8oc..a«o.o*.«eda*o..«a.«ec..a<c 

Wind Speed . . .i^o^sPsU. a. Wind Direction ... 

Li±ouq Lover ...... .».o..*.oc 4. o... oeixing 

Visibility Conditions ......... e 

Number of Moose Seen ,,,W.. 

Notes. VQ$ <VQQ§$ 9 V$V§ .§11 ,^^$iugc§K4 .§§§UY *§®Q^$4 A% ,$V% .QYSV . 

^§§§6..6am9Q§^.V er y. n 9^^4.Wl^ing..Qn a gld,g:raw.r9a4s,i > lisU 1 ; 

IWGS.CrQm^igu^.tog^o^^.^Q.La^e Jjipiggn.sgu^h.an^.ngrth,,. 

QC.^Ue 8 main a g 6 Ij^ a ain§cV§?§.i'lQwn s . a ^l r .ggQg§ntratigi;§.g^ i( 

TOgse .were .recgr^et}, .we . estate, .an . $Qfr . ggunt, . g£ ,mQgse . gn . . 

tfcS .Pl<?t a o o 



co««9oeeo 
oo«ceceQCO«99O9eo*eooo0eeo«eod« 



.eoQ. 



o«o««OOfc>r»»eo 



General remarks 

Moose March 14, 1957 

The last three flights, all since the first of March, show 
a marked decrease in the number of moose feeding during the day. 

The number bedded down is about doable what it was a month 
ago when the weather was -20°. 

Moose are much harder to locate on the plots this month 
and out line counts are down because of this change in feeding habits, 

It could be that a much greater quantity of food is nec- 
essary for survival during the sub zero weather and the moose are 
forced to move around more in search of food. Or perhaps the warm 
sun makes them lazy in the daytime , so they sleep and do their 
feeding at night when it is too cold to lie around. There could be 
a number of reasons for the change in feeding habits but one thing 
seems certain, that is that it happened when the temperature came up 
and around 20 above. 

This change has been noted on two different plots, on the 
flight lines and on a high concentration area where we intended 



- 3d - 

taking some aerial photographs. On March 11th we flew to the high 
concentration area to get some pictures and found that where we 
counted 21 moose feeding in a cut over area in February there wasn't 
a single moose feeding,, The moose were still in the area, because 
twelve were spotted, but they were all lying down except one« 

The snow is getting sticky now and sometimes we have 
trouble taking off with the extra gas load which we carry in drums 
for refueling on long trips. We may not get much more moose survey 
work done, but we will be keeping records on the feeding habits as 
long as possible this springe 

Caribou 

This warm weather seems to be affecting the caribou the 
same way as the moose, the only difference being where they lie down. 
The moose bed down right where they are feeding but the caribou 
generally go out on a lake to lie down, as a result we are seeing 
more caribou and fewer moose. 

Wolves 

There is more evidence of wolves now than there was a 
month ago, possibly because they are keeping to the waterways more 
to avoid travelling through the deep, loose snow in the woods. It 
could also be the instinct to kill which seems more prevalent in the 
spring than during the winter months. When the first crust comes, 
everything will be in the wolves favour and they can satisfy their 
instinct to stockpile food for the young which will be born when 
food is harder to get. This too could have a bearing on the instinct 
of the moose and caribou. Perhaps they sense this and sleep in the 
daytime when there is less danger of predators bothering them. 

Plot No. 9 

This plot is situated 130 miles north of Sioux Lookout 
just south of the 11th baseline and east of the sixth meridian on 
the north shore of Upper Goose Lake. 

The area was burned over some years ago, probably around 
1936 and now produces ideal food and cover for moose. 

The general appearance of the terrain would suggest an 
abundance of aquatic vegetation for the summer food supply of moose. 

This plot was decided on because of a known population 
density of over three moose per square mile, eight on February 16th. , 
1950. This information was volunteered by two Department pilots, 
Harry Speight and J. Culletin. 

The figures from todays flight over the area, though still 
high are not as high as they were in 1950. 

At that time 36 moose were spotted in ten minutes flying 
over the area where we have established plot no, 9. On today's 
flight we spent one hour circling the area and counted 34. About 
ten square miles were sampled so we still have over three moose per 
square mile. However, the population density must have been much 



- 39 - 

higher in the winter of 1950 to allow the pilots to see so many moose 
in 10 minutes* 

One hour was spent on snowshoes in the feeding area 
checking the browse but the snow was so loose and deep that the 
snowshoes sank down about a foot and very little ground was covered. 

The area appears to have been over-browsed about four or 
five years ago and a lot of young trees have died from being cropped 
too close, white birch was the most noticeable, with trembling aspen 
second. There was heavy browse on the willow but it had survived. 
The last three years browse, though severe does not seem to be as 
heavy as the previous years. 

The foregoing browse data are based on my personal obser- 
vations and are by no means complete. 

This plot is not accessible to white hunters and there is 
little or no Indian hunting pressure in the area. So that this 
particular pocket of moose, to the best of our knowledge, has been 
undisturbed by man. 

It would be interesting to do more work on the area, to 
try and determine what happened to the moose population of 1950, and 
all the reproduction since that date. Perhaps the surplus has 
migrated out of the area but it is not likely because of the ideal 
conditions which exist on the plot. Perhaps reproduction fell off 
because of competition for food. Perhaps disease wiped out most 
of the herd a few years ago and the population is on the up trend 
now. 

Regardless of the reason for the population slump, it would 
be a very worthwhile sample plot for work such as browse survey and 
a summer survey to determine the rate of reproduction. It might 
also be a good spot to do a little research work this fall. Perhaps 
a few animals should be checked for stomach content, disease and age. 



- 40 - 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 



Plot Name „ „ «IJQe <>9 „ . » • « • » » o . • . , • Size •••..10 square miles 

Location . . . ,ljPD§r e £gg§e oWsS . „ . 



f>«OOCO«O*«O«OOO«OOQCOO90CC«--3OOOO*O« 



riV-jL UOVtr 1 yP'-' oooodoooooooooocooocoo e ceoo»ooooeofl3-f«oc*oo«oo 0400^0 

Notes on Ground Cover . aQW.Qurn.aQgui; oi939* . .9§g§£§5^iW .¥* ofrUcb 

dogwood e 

Crew Pilot . .tfs .§D§iSl?t« » . » „ . . . Navigator . . , „ «,§* «$ . .T?9^^§ r . » • . 
Observer Right Side » t JQhij o §ha^n9n <> . . c „ . . „ e , „ . e , , e , , „ 

UDScI Vtl L6.L O Oluo o o o o • Q«*k"aTc0»p»'eo©eo ooooooooooo « o o • o c • 09 © © 000 o« o o 

Air Speed . •95o1 1 $D8^8 . . . R .,» . « • <> Flight Altitude . SQQ.'kQeYQQoC^ s . 

I'dO O c o o o 0% a Vec o -s ef/SSooooesoocaevCeaeoaaoeaaeaoaaaeaaeooeoaaaaooa 
1 aKG OX X On Sul lp a o o e o 3 <i ooaseoaoeaoeaaaaeaoooaocaaoeeoeoneoccaeooa 

iime ox arrival over td-Lot^ o o • o o » s-* o4oooooo«o<oooo£oco«oooo*ooo*ooooo 

1 Xllie OUrV eV C Offip IGLSQ oaooasoesroottaaaoaoaao'Vooeoaaoaaaoaoaoacoaoaa 
O UrlpS CO Hip 1SGGQ oooao»<"oe«eoao<r3o4*»oei>coooeooeaoo300oapaoaeaaoooo 

Temperature on plot « .?Q.3-^°Y§. , • Snow Depth on Plot .?9.i£Sv£?. » . 
Days since last snow „,,i, Amount Falling .....9U. , 

w 1 Ub COIIQI U .lOn o»coc«oooV-i'Tro©Jooo*o«e:5 0toooc»«©ooo«o»o*oooco9o o * o • 

Wind Speed . , 5.Hi«Pptt» . » . , . . « . . o . Wind Direction . .OVrt^,V§?'t. . . . • 

vlUUU wOVCr oooQo-tr-fr-o-eoeooooeofi*** uGllin^ • oooo'S~'t~ooo a 0009000000000 

V loJ.UlJ.lIjy uOilUlLlOuS o o V r JiV o o e do e o oo o o • o o o • o f o o • o e © • o o o o • o o o o o o o 00 
i'J LLiUU CX O J- J.J.O OSS O C OIL oo« , oVo[e/ J T^VtfoV\roo*oe«e^oo«^o*:oooc'-'oo©o<*C'ooojo(,e 

Not ess Qn o night.lines o l^ o tg^a; o mggse.spgttg^at'.508..Q9§ o V9if.V§?, 
spgttedcQe. Upper. Gggse.La^e.in.sigh^.gf^he.plgt.an^.tVQ. . . 
gn .the* way. hgme.gn.F]^ La^e 8o .W9lf\tT&e&§,werg.aisg c ngkeg: e . 

gn, Jcaoette.la^eoao^ 3 5rgteowvtl3a6iy§ri . .Ue. toils, vers, c . » » 

gbseryeac3,§i^.g&ribgv 3 wgrg,spgt-tg^o a )U§t.ngrth (> gf <l Lac < ,§evl c 
gn,tbQoyayahQmg..,^ggse 9 wgrgongt.mgying a .gyer e t¥get]?iir^.o , 

* l O'itoJ-y'»-Wj> ) o l cJ-VO'y*o«oeaoo«»o»oooo»eocaoooaooooi>5oo«eoooonoico 



- 41 - 



GAME INVENTORY OF THE CARIBOU CROWN GAME PRESERVE, 1957 

by 

R. H. Trotter 



Flight Mo. 2, February 22 , 1957 

This was the second successive day over the Game Preserve, 
it was colder with more wind than the first day, but we saw more 
moose,, There was ice haze in the air both days but to-day it was so 
thick in some spots that it was impossible to see tracks from the air. 

It was about -15° in the air and -11° on the ground. The 
observers in the back of the aircraft could not keep warm with full 
heat on, so they wrapped up in blankets. The windows frosted a bit 
but we managed to keep them clean by rubbing them with a coarse cloth 
and using ice scrapers when it got thick. 

Thirteen caribou were spotted on a ridge just north of 
Cliff Lake and about five miles west of the Red Lake Road on the 
flight line to the Game Preserve two caribou yards were noted on 
the north edge of the Game Preserve near Optic Lake but we could not 
see the caribou. We estimated the herd to be about five in one yard 
and eight in the other. These are probably the same animals which 
the prospector told us about yesterday. 

There were less deer yards on to-day 9 s plot, A total of 
11 deer were recorded with three of these off the plot. All deer 
recorded to date in the Game Preserve have been on the south half. 
Deer are harder to spot from the air than moose and the percentage 
of animals counted is much lower than in moose or caribou. The 
caribou are easy to count when you find them, because they are 
generally in a herd. We seldom note more than two deer in a place 
and their colour and size make it hard to spot them. The black hair 
on the moose stands out against the white background of snow and is 
seldom confused with other objects even in coniferous stands. 

The total number of moose recorded to-day was 110 animals, 
86 of which were observed in the Game Preserves, This is our highest 
count of moose for any one day. As in yesterdays flight the lines 
were two miles apart running north and south, the only time we did 
any circling was when over an area where moose were concentrated 
and orbiting became necessary to make the count. The highest concen- 
trations of animals were from Sydney Lake south. 

All information is being recorded on topographic maps and 
will be included in the final report. 



A topographic map showing recorded information accompanied the 
original report. 



- 42 - 

Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



Date ..Fel?rv3vy.?l?t*.19$7, 

H 37 

Ae rial Survey of Moose 

Plot cQ^9WcQ^§ ? : T???? , Y§...e Size 5§ square miles 

T • T 

J_iOCaG1011 ..0...oa.........o..o..o...a...... ............... .......... 

uOV8r iype oo«..o.o.a0««oeoo«oo«ocoas.o**.«oae»s««e«'«ocaso«*.o».oo. 

Pilot ., ferry. Speight oeo .. otfooe Navigator . c5«.Ps . iT9^t§r 
Observers (right side) . . . . J. .Shannon 

(left side) . . . , .5* .tfa .§"twe 
Date covered c . Vepruary a 22uqI. • . . a « . Noon temperature ,.,:! 
Wind direction e . . . .¥. e • . . . • . . . c . • o Wind speed , . . . 5. m 8P»b« . . 

Cloud cover ,JU ,„,,,, ,, Altitude . . . . 5Q0.f §et o 

Snow depth . ..26o2„ 
Days since last snow 

Time of take off 10 . 3 5 

Time survey on plot . .2 e hgurs, .4Q.miWt§3 gygr e plg£ 

Number of koose seen , . . #Q. . . • • . . . . . . Flying time . ..4s4-Q. 

li (J ill " JJcIlD" e * o 09 t -i-Vfl fl-Vo yVr-o Vo oeoo • • « 9 o »•• e o » o o o a © co • ♦ o j 

Notes. .l6.aiogse.ana.5.^^er.QyoWay e tQ 9 Qame preserye.. 
. 13. TOQSg.an# o l 3eer o gn. return e £rip. 

. 51. moose au^ l^.^eer e in. th^.g&me. preserve. t. §11. nyiPg.WS. 
. done . in. §t rsigbt . li^es „ tW .miles . apart , oyer . ^he . Qame 
.Prgsery?-. oTtig. Qnly e circling. v&s.ma^e,t-o e check tt?.?W b ?r . 
oOf.moose.spotte^a^^rg.VQOse.were.har^.tQ.^^^s . . 



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Sioux Lookout, Ontario 

Date . .Fet>wary.??&d#.1957. 9 ... 

H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose 

Plot .Q^r3- b PV,^rPW,&&B^oPrg?gV7er Size . square miles 

Location .. .Sydney, take. «, . 

Cover Type . . . mixed* tnirneg:. pypr. eyergr^gn G 

Pilot . , ...ft*. Speight... Navigator . . . &#. hj.TrPttPP 

Observers (right side) ..... sJphp, Shannon. . 

(left side) ......£*. StPPe 

Date covered . . Feb*. ??•*«> 1?£7. . • . . . . Noon temperature . .rlQ.... 

Wind direction ..'^t,, Wind speed . . . (\ SVP.h* 

Cloud cover ... frPSt. Iwe. . ....... . Altitude . . . pW. f eet 

Snow depth ...... 27. J-PPP-eS 

Days since last snow ....... p*. 

Take off ...... ,1Q»15 . 

Time of arrival over the plot 
Time completed . . .!7<.QQ ,hQU£§ . 

Total . . . p*. 3/ k Jwrs. ft-yj-pe. t;>- m e. 

i lJ.nl U til U 1- 1 iUUo" oy^Xl o o o o ore o o a *• »,.« <* *• » « «>»««« 

Notes . 3P. PWAe. wpre ppserye£l j-P. 2. 3/{+. lwrs„ flVJ-VZ. Pt'T&Zbt: J-J-P. 3 * 3 
. tW. W-l.e£. apart e pypr c £h e pame. Pre^eryp., . t PP. Pt h £r. 2k mops 
. were, PbcSpryepl. pp. £hp flight, lipps. gpipg. tP. PP$. « f PPC 1 . the. plPt. 

. JL3. feur-ibpu. apd. 11. deer. were. alep. plwryep^ ................... 



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- 44 - 

Flight Mo. 3, February 26, 1957 . 

Pretty well all the information recorded on to-day's flight 
is included on the attached forms SL 1 and H 37 • 

All information recorded on the flight line maps will be 
forthcoming in the moose inventory report. Concentration of moose 
tracks are being coloured in on the map to show the density in hunted 
areas across the district. Maps of the Game Preserve will be forwar- 
ded with the next report. 

The weather was perfect for flying to-day but the count was 
the lowest yet. 

Weather does not seem to influence the movement of moose 
to any great extent. 

One more day on the plot should finish it off at a l/$ 
sample. This may be sufficient information for our inventory. 

We had considered flying the area east and west with the 
same distance between lines as we are using now. This idea has been 
abandoned as we would probably run into trouble where the lines cross 
in high animal concentrations. We could never be sure when we were 
counting herds which had been counted on previous north and south 
lines. This would be true of caribou in particular, as they travel 
quite a lot and could be several miles from where they were previously 
spotted. The moose too, could move enough in two weeks to confuse 
the tally. 

Perhaps an alternative would be to do a couple of sample 
plots thoroughly using the orbiting method to determine the number of 
moose per square mile where high concentrations exist. Time and 
weather will probably be the deciding factor. 






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- -46 - 



Dat e . ; . February. 26* . 1957. 



Sioux Lookout, Ontario 



H 37 

Aerial Survey of Moose Flight No, 3 

Plot . .Csribou.Qrgwn.Gwe.Ereserye..... Size .. .16QQ. .. .square miles 

Location . . .£o§t}9Ul. W^S 

Cover Type .WQ§tiy.^ClfDi9e.^4.§I?WC§.Vitb.§9^.W^ a gij4,§QiIi§^i¥e4 

Pilot , c . .$6 • Spgisb'fc o «..«.„. Navigator . «, . .§« .#» .Trgtte? 

Observers (right side) . „ . . .<jQha.§hanngn 9 

(left side) . . . . . .E3rl«§tW§„ , 

Date covered . .£§gwary.26, .1957 Noon temperature . ...3.£bgye 

Wind direction . ,Uil Wind speed ^il ..... 

Cloud cover . ... Jhl. ...... . ... . Altitude . . . . . . SQQ.Ceei • 

Snow depth . . .?7.inghes. . . 6 . . . c , 

Days since last snow .......9 

Time of arrival over the plot . . . • .li.^* 1 ! 1 * , 

Time survey completed on plot ....*.?» 45 

Number of moose seen on plot ...... ?2 

Notes: 4.tQt§l.gi > .43.^ggse w§r§.§pgttie(i.ing;u4ing.th(- e | , ligh1i.line.. 

cgw^ tte .Mg§^ gf e tg 7 4ay:§.ar§a wa§.pQQr.mgg§§.rang§,.byl; 

tbere.wa§ mygh mgrg §Yi4§ng§.gf .garibgv.at.th«.DQrth gn4, 08 . 

C§§r. metered. gvt.^lrposti.ggippie^eiy.vUh.Qniy.one.spgtti^ 

9Y6r . the pre§erye , e „ . . , 



Flight No. 4, March 7, 1957 

Nine days have lapsed since our last flight over the 
preserve and the weather has warmed up considerably. There are less 
moose feeding during the day now than on previous flights. 

To-day the moose were practically all lying down and only 
twenty-three were recorded in 4 3/4 hours combined flying on the 
flight line and over the Game Preserve. 

The Caribou count was up for two reasons, first we were 
doing the part where the highest concentration is located and secondly 
they were all out on lakes lying down where they could be easily 
spotted. 

This completes the line flights over the area but we will 
try and do one plot in the southeast corner before we finish off. 

There are very few moose in the area where caribou are 
concentrated, this shows up on the flight map which should be referred 
to during the perusal of the reports. 

A small corner on the northwest side was not completed. 
It is all burned over and there are no signs of caribou or deer and 
very few signs of moose. 



- 47 - 

H 37 

Aerial Sur vey of Moose 

Plot Name . A Io « ,4-.£ligk£ Size . . ,l$QQ . square miles 

Location . .Q^m^gu.C'SWJ .Q^ ,?V§§§ r Y§ . .... ...... * • . . ....... . 

r Xl _L l/OVCi I y"D (3 oooeoooooo*oo>oeoocoocooc*o*oeooo9Qeooooooo<>oco*odoooo 

Notes on Ground Cover .^§^lYJ*C^e4^§c§nd o § e ruge §Qm§.^yrn <) an4 c . . . . 

o Vli i » » »Hr4« s » V s of c.o«ocooe..*oi>e'n«c.o.«..oscooo 

Crew Pilot . . .y§ rr Y.§B§ig&1; . . . . . Navigator . . ,5b Jh .T r 9U§ r , . . . . . • . 
Observer right side . .'JgbQoS&^WQ 1 ?. . . . ...» • . . ..... ......... « ... c .. . 

L D u L 1 V b 1 1GID S1QG ooo^&oS9o»fe<»4oo6)«coofl'O)Oe*O0ooc&«»ooo4on0ooo«*9«oo 

Air Speed . ..2Q. 1 i 1 »B»b» •.•.•...•• . Flight Altitude . „ .7QQ .£§§£ ...... . 

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J- aKG Oil LUIS .oaoo4rV&"tr<«Sf& 4 %.noe*ccieo9.oea*9.e.eea.»ee. ..•...••*«.. 
lXine OX amVa_L OVer pJLOu oo«c~?7r.W« < ir%e*>*eoeo.«.ee.oe.ooe...e. ...... 

(30 minutes off for lunch) 
Time Survey completed . . .iSa^Q.Pft^. 

Temperature on Plot . .?Q°.3toY§ . . . . Snow Depth on Plot .?6.ingh§§ , . , 
Days since last snow_ .17. ......... . Amount falling 

O1U.0U CCjlJ'vJ.-LL/XUil ••o«'?'7oi*»«oe««ecso««e«ooo*oo«o«O0«ooe'9«oo««eooeee«a 

Wind speed . . . 5 ? ra 8P*ka o . . . . . . . • . . . Wind direction , .. W%V. ........ . 

Cloud Cover . .Qil ..., „ . ........... . Ceiling . ...Qii 

Visibility conditions . . . . .Q> .^.WJ 



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Number of moose seen ...15 

Number of caribou seen ...H. 

Notes; ^ggse, .3 .4§§ r .W},?.WU .kUi§.ty§ r §. r eC<2 r 4§4.9$.t.ke .fUgfct 
lin§ .tg .^§ ,pl9t a . .Tki§ . V3§ .tkS .VSCTSSt .4§Y .¥§ .k^YS ha4 , fgr , 
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- 49 - 



ONTARIO SALE OF LICENCE'S FOR 1956 

compiled by 
Wo Mulholland 



Reciprocal 75 

Gun 286,529 

Groundhog 27? 903 

Deer-Dog 10,836 

Raccoon-Dog 1,181 

Raccoon 1,090 

Non-resident small game 5>905 

Non-resident general 1,521 

Non-resident bear 1,995 

Non-resident wolf 36 



Resident 80,940 

Farmer 16,550 

Non-resident 7,426 

Camp deer 689 

Deer-Moose 903 

TOTAL DEER 106,508 



Resident 13,441 

Non-resident 1,520 

TOTAL MOOSE 14,961 



Non-resident 376,000 

Manitoba 2,970 

Organized Camp 3,250 

Provincial Park 5,586 

Algonquin Park Junior 818 

Resident Smelt 18,192 

Non-resident Smelt 2,800 



~ 50 r 

A STUDY OF THE YELLOW PICKEREL POPULATION 
IN LAKE SUPERIOR AND THE NIPIGON RIVER SYSTEM, 1956. 

by 

R A. Ryder 

Introduction 

There has been considerable debate for several years between 
anglers and commercial fishermen of the Nipigon area regarding the 
singleness of the pickerel population in the Nipigon Bay to Polly 
Lake chain (Figure 1). Anglers and guides claimed that the pickerel 
captured in Polly Lake were migrants from the Nipigon Ray population, 
and consequently that commercial fishing in Nipigon Bay of Lake 
Superior adversely affected the population. Commercial fishermen on 
the other hand, maintained that two separate populations existed, one 
in Nipigon Bay, the other in Polly Lake and Lake Helen. This inti- 
mated that commercial fishing in Nipigon Bay would have little if 
any effect on pickerel angling in Polly Lake. 

In 1955 in an attempt to solve at least part of this problem 
136 yellow pickerel were tagged in the Nipigon River chain.* Subse- 
quent tag returns (9.6%) verified the fact that at least part of the 
Nipigon Bay pickerel population migrated up the Nipigon River, 
through Lake Helen and into Polly Lake. One fish also made the return 
route from Polly Lake to Nipigon Bay. It was decided at this time 
that insufficient evidence was at hand to obtain a true picture of 
migration routes followed, and an approximate population estimate. 
Consequently, a more intensive tagging programme was planned for 1956. 

Tagging Results 

From the period of april 30 to May 9, 1956, 1,000 pickerel 
had affixed to them a plastic type streamer tag. These fish were 
captured in quantity, in riffle areas of the Nipigon River, presumably 
the spawning grounds. Both a seine and dip nets were used in the 
capture although the former was soon abandoned because of the diffi- 
culty of manoeuvering it on the rocky substratum. 



See Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 3 5, June 1, 1957 
pp. 3$-42. 







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- 52 - 
TABLE I - Tag Returns Made in 1955 and 1956 



Year 



No. of Tagged Pickerel 
No. of Tag Returns 
Percentage Tag Returns 



Lower Nipigon 
River 


Polly Lake & 
Lake Helen 

1955 1956 

46 25 
6 3 
13.0 12.0 


Total Pickerel 
Tagged 


1955 1956 

90 1000 
7* 103 
7.7 10.3 


1955 1956 

136 1025 
13 106 
9.6 10.3 



IE Accounts for two tags returned in 1956 which were not included 
in the 1955 report. 

Of the 1,000 pickerel which were tagged, 103 tags were 
returned between May 11 and November 6, 1956. This 10.3$ return is 
a considerable increase over the 7 *7% return from the Nipigon River 
tagged fish of 1955 (Table l). Of those tags returned 56.3$ were 
caught by anglers, the remaining 43 « 7% being captured by commercial 
fishermen, lamprey barriers, or in experimental gill net sets. Table 
1 shows a comparison of the tag returns for 1955 and 1956. 

In 1956 a definite pattern of migration was established 
for the Nipigon Bay pickerel population. 

The thousands of pickerel observed in the Lower Nipigon 
River in Ma}' during the spawning run determine the initial migration 
from Nipigon Bay in late April and early May. From here the bulk 
of the population moves up the Nipigon River through Lake Helen and 
into Polly Lake. Thirty-seven tag returns made in Polly Lake in 
June substantiate this theory. One tag return each from the Jackfish 
and Gravel Rivers in June gives an indication that at least part of 
the population after spawning return to Nipigon Bay and run up other 
tributary streams. This is further verified by Mr. J. C. Hallam, 
biologist of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, who in personal 
correspondence indicated that a total of 1,249 yellow pickerel were 
captured in nets on either side of an electrical lamprey weir in the 
Jackfish River between July 7 and August 11, Eight of these fish 
were tagged pickerel, seven captured in July and one in August. One 
tagged pickerel each was captured during July in Lake Helen, the 
Lower Nipigon River, and Nipigon Bay, again showing a tendency towards 
a downstream migration. The rate of tagged fish captured in Polly 
Lake during July and August drops off sharply as the downstream move- 
ment begins. This is further evidenced by the poor angling experien- 
ced in Polly Lake after the first of September when only rarely is a 
pickerel caught. A two hundred yard gill net set made in Polly Lake 
on November 7 and lifted on November 8 netted only three yellow 
pickerel. It was located at the same site that a similar net had 
captured thirty pickerel on June 8. In August, the greatest number 
of tag returns (six) came from the Lower Nipigon River. Two pickerel 
appeared in the Upper Nipigon River for the first time and an addi- 
tional two were captured in Nipigon Bay by commercial fishermen. In 
September three more tagged fish were captured in the Upper Nipigon 
River and nine in Nipigon Bay. By October most of the pickerel had 



4 


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6 


7 


1 



T 53 T 

apparently reached Nipigon Bay as evidenced by twenty tag returns 
from that location,, Only one other return was made during that month, 
from the Lower Nipigon River, During November only two tags were 
returned, both from Nipigon Bay. Table 2 shows the month by month 
distribution of tag returns from the 1,000 pickerel tagged in the 
Lower Nipigon River,, Figure 1 shows the localities where the tagged 
pickerel were recovered. 

Of the twenty-five pickerel tagged in Polly Lake during 
1956, one each was recaptured in Polly Lake in June and August. The 
remaining tag was returned from Nipigon Bay in September 

TaBLE II - Dis t ribution of Recovered Tagged Pickerel by Month 

May June July Aug. Sept^ Oct. Nov. 

Polly Lake 37 

Lake Helen 

Upper Nipigon River 

Lower Nipigon River 1 

Jackfish River 1 

Gravel River 1 

Nipigon Bay 12 9 20 2 

Figure 2 shows the main migration route taken by the bulk 
of the pickerel population, together with the localities you would 
expect to find them on certain dates. 

Almost one half (forty-four) of the tag recoveries were made 
in Polly Lake, a distance of about nine water miles from the point of 
tagging. The bulk of the remainder (thirty- four) were taken at 
various points in Nipigon Bay by commercial fishermen. These recove- 
ries ranged from nine to twenty-four miles from the point of tagging. 
Assuming that most of the tagged pickerel travel to Polly Lake before 
returning to Nipigon Bay (as evidenced by the forty-four tag returns 
made in Polly Lake) it would not be unreasonable to add the return 
distance to Polly Lake from the tagging site, to all those records in 
Nipigon Bay. This would bring the farthest record in Nipigon Bay 
up to a minimum of forty-two miles travelled after being tagged. 
The maximum distance travelled direct from the tagging site to the 
point of recovery was the individual recaptured in the Gravel River, 
thirty-two water miles from the tagging site. The average distance 
travelled from point of tagging to the point of recovery was 10.1 
miles. Table 3 shows the minimum distances travelled from the tagging 
site to the point of recovery. 

The first tagged fish was recaptured on June 1, twenty-five 
days after tagging. The remainder were caught at various dates up 
to November 6 or 1#9 days after tagging. The average length of time 
which elapsed before the fish were recovered was 95 days. There was 
apparently no relationship between the time elapsed and distance 
removed from the tagging site except at certain times of the year the 



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- 55 - 



population was farther from the tagging site than at others. This 
was explained previously when the migration route was outlined. 

Two tagged pickerel were captured during 1956 which were 
tagged on May 1, 1955. These fish were both captured in Polly Lake 
a total of 379 and 411 days after their release. 

TaBLE III - Distances Travelled by Tagged Yellow Pi ckerel, 1956 



L ocality Tagged 

Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 

Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 

Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Lower Nipigon R. 
Polly Lake 
Polly Lake 



L ocality Recovered 



Polly Lake 

Lake Helen 

Smith's Bay, Lake Helen 

Parmachene, Upper Nipigon R. 

Alexander Falls, Upper Nipigon 

River 
Lower Nipigon River 
Brule Shoal, Nipigon Bay 
South of Vert Is., Nipigon Bay 
MacKinnon Point, Nipigon Bay 
West of Mclnnes Pt e , Nipigon 

Bay 
West of Cape Mono, Nipigon Bay 
East of Grant Pt„, Nipigon Bay 
Jackfish River 
Gravel River 
Polly Lake 
Mclnnes Point, Nipigon Bay 





Distance 


Number 


Travelled 


Recovered 


(miles) 


44 


9 


1 


1 


1 


5 


1 


6 


4 


10 


8 





11 


9 


5 


13 


2 


15 


9 


15 


6 


17 


1 


24 


9 


13 


1 


32 


2 





1 


19 



P opulation Estimate 

It would be both desirable and practicable at this point to 
make an estimate of the Nipigon Bay pickerel population. By doing 
so we can determine if the commercial fishing in Nipigon Bay would 
have any adverse effect on the angling of Polly Lake. Unfortunately, 
the sport fishing harvest is not known. A creel census will be run 
on Polly Lake during 1957 to obtain data. For the present population 
estimate we will assume that the tag returns from the Polly Lake 
fish make up the same percentage of the total number of fish captured 
as those tag returns obtained by other means. Returns by commercial 
fishermen (Table 4) are most accurate for this purpose as rather 
precise records are kept of the total weight of pickerel taken from 
Nipigon Bay. The average weight of these fish was obtained from 
pickerel taken in 4g" (stretched measure) nylon nets, used to sample 
the same population. The percentage tag returns compared to the 
total number of pickerel captured in the lamprey weir was probably 
the least accurate as it is possible that the same fish were handled 
more than once. The net sampling in Lake Helen and Polly Lake, 
produced exact figures but because of the relatively small sample 
can only be used collectively with the other categories for the 
population estimate. 



- 56 



TABLE IV - Breakdown of Tag Returns from Nipigon River Tagged 
Pickerel 



Anglers 

Commercial Fishermen 
Jackfish River, Lamprey Weir 
Net Sampling 



TOTALS 



No. of 

Tags 

Returned 

59 
34 

7 

3 

103 



Total No. 
of Fish 
Captured 

7,375* 
3,337** 

1,249 
186 



Percentage 
Tagged Fish of 
Total Captured 

0.8 * 

0.9 
0.6 
1.6 



12,647 Weighted o.8 
Average 



x Weighted figure obtained from percentage of tagged fish returned 
in remaining three categories. 

KS€ Estimate obtained from tonnage of pickerel captured by commercial 
fishermen. 



as only mature pickerel were tagged, and the commercial and 
sport-fishing harvest consists almost entirely of mature fish, a 
population estimate can be made of the numbers of yellow pickerel 
measuring fourteen inches and upwards inhabiting Nipigon Bay and its 
tributary waters. Employing the following equation we obtain an 
approximation of the yellow pickerel population. 



Fi - F 
Pi F 



where 



Therefore: 



Fi s Number of marked fish recaptured. 
Pi e Total number of fish captured. 
F s Total number of marked fish in lake. 
P s Total fish population in lake. 

103 - 1000 



12,647 P 
P = 122,786. 

Rounding off the above calculation to significant figures 
we obtain an adult pickerel population of about 123,000 fish inhabit- 
ing Nipigon Bay and its tributary waters. 

Effect of Commercial Fishing on Angling in Polly Lake 

Both commercial fishermen in Nipigon Bay and anglers in the 
Nipigon River chain of lakes harvest the same adult population of 
pickerel. Commercial fishermen, however, are required by law to take 
only those pickerel measuring over fourteen inches in length. The 
mesh sizes of their gill nets (4,2" extension measure) almost exclude 
the possibility of catching smaller pickerel than this, with the 



- 57 - 

exception of an occasional small one that becomes entangled in the 
mesh with its teeth. Even in the pound nets the fish would average 
larger than the angling catch as long as the fourteen inch size 
limit is in force. 

Anglers, on the other hand, have no minimum size limit and 
their average pickerel is smaller than the average taken by commer- 
cial fishing because of the less selective gear employed. Even so, 
very few immature pickerel are retained by anglers. 

Of the estimated number of pickerel harvested during 1956 
(Table 4) about two-thirds were taken by anglers, the remaining third 
being harvested by commercial fishermen. About ten percent of the 
total adult population was harvested by all fishing factions together. 

The effect of commercial fishing in Nipigon Bay during 
1956, on Polly Lake angling cannot yet be determined. However, 
during the past couple of years because of the drastic decline of 
lake trout in Lake Superior, commercial fishermen have been fishing 
the pickerel heavier than formerly. Over this same period there has 
been a feeling among some Polly Lake anglers that the pickerel cap- 
tured during 1956 averaged considerably larger in size than those of 
1955* This was borne out by the measurement records taken from the 
spawning fish during the 1955 and 1956 spawning runs in the Lower 
Nipigon River, as these fish were captured using dip nets in both 
years a comparison can be made. It is interesting to note that the 
average length during 1955 was 16. 5 inches while in 1956 it jumped 
to 17.4 inches. This increase of 0.9 inches is most certainly a 
significant one and can possibly be explained by the commercial catch 
which has increased immensely over the past two years, thus reducing 
the competition factor among the pickerel themselves. The drastic 
reduction of lake trout in Lake Superior resulting from lamprey 
depredations also removes an important competitive factor making 
more food available to the pickerel. It might be concluded then, 
that the present rate of exploitation is far below the maximum catch 
that could be taken to improve the quality of the population. It 
would be desirable in the future, however, to set a tonnage limit 
on yellow pickerel taken by commercial fishing in Nipigon Bay. At 
present this is unnecessary as the harvest has not yet approached 
the point where optimum benefits to the pickerel population and 
subsequently to the angler are received. 

A ctivities of the Yellow Pickerel on the Spawning Grounds 

The pickerel were first noted on the spawning grounds in 
shallow water on April 29 « They were fairly numerous on this date 
even though the water temperature was only 34«0° F. A large pebble 
and boulder substratum was preferred, usually just out of the main 
current or in a back eddy. The numbers of fish observed on the 
following two nights, increased although the water temperature rose 
only one degree. The pickerel appeared in greatest abundance between 
llsOO p.m. and 2^00 a.m. the following morning. Each evening the 
smaller males arrived on the grounds first and were succeeded then 
by the larger fish both males and females. The sex ratio as observed 
over the tagging period is shown on Table 6. Each surge of water 



- 5S - 

from the river moved more pickerel into the shallows which allowed 
themselves to be carried up on the shoals by the back-currents. By- 
May 7 other species of fish appeared on the shoals with the pickerel 
including white suckers ( Catostomus commersonii ) , long-nosed suckers 
( Catostomus catostomus ) , whitef ish ( Coregonu s clupeaformis ) and the 
odd sturgeon (Ac ipen sor fulvescens ) . The pickerel themselves 
appeared more sluggish and easier to capture with dip nets than 
previously. They maintained tighter groups and generally occupied 
shallower water than during the early run. a noticeable fluctuation 
in the water levels appeared from day to day, although no definite 
correlation could be established between this fact and pickerel acti- 
vity on the spawning grounds. By May 9 a strong wind made the river 
water extremely turbid and the pickerel more wary. They shied away 
from the shallow water and demonstrated their negative phototropism 
more strongly than previously. On this date the water temperature 
was only 3o.0°F and the fish examined were not yet ripe. On May 11 
the fish reached their greatest abundance and were the least wary 
during the period of observation. They occurred in shallower water 
than that in which they had occupied to date. This possibly resulted 
from the overcast night which obscured the moonlight. By May 14 
the water temperature had risen to 3#°F but the fish had returned 
to the deeper water possibly because of a very bright moon. The 
density of the pickerel on the spawning grounds steadily decreased 
until May 22 when they were absent altogether. From then until May 
31, the river was extremely muddy and no pickerel were observed. 

The pickerel had not spawned on the grounds of the Nipigon 
River during the period of observation. Because of this a complete 
picture of sex ratios on the spawning grounds was probably not 
obtained and leaves a doubt as to what the sex ratio would have been 
towards the end of the spawning period. Eschmeyer (1942) observed 
that many walleyes did not spawn in 1940 under favourable conditions. 
Many females examined during June and July in the Norris Reservoir 
were still carrying mature eggs. Derback (1947) noted that stream- 
migrant walleyes which encountered cold weather while on the spawning 
grounds returned to the lake and did not reappear in the streams. 
Female pickerel were subsequently caught in the lake in June which 
were resorbing their eggs. 

In the Nipigon River the pickerel were not observed spawning 
during the period they remained in the shallows. This was possibly 
due to the extremely long, cold spring and the correspondingly low 
water temperatures which ensued. During the heaviest portion of the 
run ( April 30 to May IB) the highest water temperature encountered 
was only 39.0°F (Table 6). These water temperatures were possibly 
too low for satisfactory spawning. Other authors give optimum 
spawning temperatures as 4'6°F to 43°F. Cobb (1923), 3£°F to 44°F. 
Eddy and Surber (1947), 43°F. Derback (1947), and Herman (1947) 3#°F 
to 44°F. Ripe female pickerel were observed by the author in Polly 
Lake on June 8, 1956. It is not known, however, if satisfactory 
reproduction would be possible in this lake because of the soft sub- 
stratum and the predominantly weedy shoreline. 



- 59 - 
Feeding Activity During Spawning Run 

On May 5, thirty-three pickerel were examined for stomach 
contents to determine the feeding activity during the spawning run. 
The results were as follows; 

Percentage of Total Number 
Food Item of Pickerel Examined 



Empty 36 

Fish Remains (well digested) 5$ 

Plant Remains 3 

Organic Matter 3 

Identifiable Fish Remains 9 

Stizostedio n sp. 3 

Coregonidae 3 

Osmerus mordax 3 

While the food analysis did not reveal any great feeding 
activity, the degree of freshness of the identifiable fish precluded 
that at least some of the pickerel were feeding. This was further 
substantiated the following day when several pickerel were captured 
on a spoon and several more were lost about one-quarter of a mile 
below the spawning grounds. 

Predation 

Stomach samples of four whitefish (Coregonus clupeaf ormis ) 
and one white sucker ( Catostomus co mmersonii ) were taken on the 
pickerel spawning grounds during the tagging period. It was hoped 
that some indication could be obtained as to the extent of predation 
by whitefish and suckers on pickerel spawn. Unfortunately the picke- 
rel failed to spawn during the tagging period and substantial data 
could not be expected. The qualitative results of the stomach 
samples were as follows; whitefish - insect larvae, one earthworm, 
and many small mollusks; white sucker - stomach empty. 

S ex Ratio 

As it was previously noted, in order to insure a successful 
tagging program with a minimum of mortality to the tagged fish, sex 
was determined by gently rubbing the abdominal region caudad and 
identifying the seminal product emerging from the genital aperture. 
Hence, for the most part only ripe or near ripe fish could be iden- 
tified as to sex. as the tagging operation took place early in the 
spawning run, it was generally near ripe males that were identified 
in this manner. Four hundred and eleven fish were retained for scale 
samples and all of these but five were sexed by opening the body 
cavity and examining the genitalia. The results are shown in Table 5. 



- 60 - 



table v - 



Males 
Females 



Number 

172 
234 



Percontage 

42.4 
57.6 



Sex Ratio - 
Number of Females Per 100 Males 



100 
136 



The fact that females constituted 57.6 perc 
total sample agrees very closely with what Eschmeyer 
in the Muskegon River during the spawning run in 1947 
that the spawning season sample was composed of 5$ pe 
but goes on further to explain that this may be due t 
tivity of the dip nets used on the Muskegon River. I 
nets some fish are bound to escape and females being 
eggs are not likely to be so active as males . Hence, 
conclusions are that the more active males escape the 
frequently, resulting in a biased sample. 



ent of the 

(1950) found 

. Here he found 

rcent females, 

o the selec- 

n using dip 

burdened with 
Eschmeyer 9 s 
dip nets more 



Eschmeyer further explains that a barrier (Newaygo Dam) 
near the sampling site might be a second possibility accounting for 
the high percentage of females in the sample. In the present study 
this possibility is ruled out as no barriers exist near the sampling 
site. 

In Lake Gogebic, Eschmeyer found 89 percent males out of 
4*315 adult pickerel sampled on the spawning grounds by trap net. 
It is our contention that a trap net tends to bias the sample in 
favour of the male pickerel. The males, being more active on the 
spawning grounds, are much more likely to be captured in a stationary 
type of net such as a trap net than are the more sedentary females. 
Perhaps, a. figure somewhere between those obtained by the two sampling 
methods (dip net and trap net) would give a better indication of the 
true sex ratio during the spawning run. Table 6 gives a day by day 
breakdown of the sex ratios and agrees closely with the works of other 
authors, Eschmeyer (1952) and Schneberger (1938, 1939, and 1940). 

TaBLE VI 





Water Temperature 
35.0° F 


Nu 


mber 


Perc 


entage 


Date 


Males 
17 


Females 
10 


Males 
63.0 


Females 


April 30 


37.0 


May 1 


34c5 


15 


16 


48 . 4 


51.6 


May 2 


35.0 


18 


13 


58.1 


41.9 


May 3 


35»0 


16 


13 


55.2 


44. « 


May 4 


35.0 


14 


18 


43.8 


56.2 


May 5 


35.0 


13 


18 


41.9 


58.1 


May 6 


35.0 


10 


23 


30.3 


69.7 


May 7 


36.0 


10 


20 


33.3 


66.7 


May 8 


36.5 


16 


16 


50.0 


50.0 


May 9 


36.0 


12 


18 


40.0 


60.0 


May 11 


37.5 


14 


16 


46.7 


53.3 


May 14 


38.0 


6 


27 


18.2 


81.8 


May 16 


38.0 


11 


22 


33.3 


66.7 


May 18 * 


39.0 





2 




- 



x The water was very silty on this date and fish were difficult to 
capture, resulting in an extremely small sample. 



- 61 - 

On all sampling days except May 11, 14, 16 and 18, the 
pickerel required for age and growth data and from which the sex 
ratios were obtained, were captured in dip nets after the tagging 
operation was completed. This meant that any diurnal variation of 
sex ratios on the spawning grounds were not accounted for, as most 
of the samples were taken approximately between 2^00 a.m. and 4s00 
a.m. The four exceptions were the above noted on May 11, 14, 16 and 
1$, when tagging operations were not carried out and the fish required 
for age and growth data were captured during the early part of the 
run for the night, between lOsOO p.m. and lis 00 p.m. 

Length-Frequency Distribution 



Length-frecjuency data were compiled for 1411 mature pickerel 
taken during the 195^ spawning run in the Lower Uipigon River. They 
ranged in total length from 12.4 inches to 26.2 inches. These were 
plotted in one inch length increments against number of fish (Figure 
3). From this graph we see that the 17 to 18 inch increment contains 
the greatest number of fish and can be considered as the mode for 
this spawning population. The average length of the mature fish, 
both sexes included, was 17.4 inches. Over ninety percent of the 
spawning pickerel were included in the fourteen to twenty inch group- 
ing. 

Diseases an d Parasites 

nil the pickerel which were tagged or from which scale 
samples were taken during the spring spawning run were given a 
cursory examination for external parasites or diseases. Of the 1411 
pickerel examined, 311 or 22$ bore signs of lymphocystis disease. 
It is possible that under the poor light conditions in which the 
fish were examined, some of the growths were actually tumors or 
carcinomas, particularly if the disease occurred in an early stage. 
All were classified, however, as lymphocystis because it was realized 
that this was by far the most prevalent disease. 

Of the 1,000 fish which were subsequently tagged and exam- 
ined in the Lower Nipigon River, 25$ were infected at least to some 
degree with lymphocystis. It was expected that a lesser percentage 
of the tagged fish which were captured and reported would have this 
disease as mortality took its effect. However, the opposite was true. 
Thirty-two percent of all tagged fish returned were those which were 
infected with lymphocystis at time of tagging. This is possibly an 
indication of the susceptibility of the diseased fish to capture, 
both by angling and by netting. 

One hundred and eighty-eight pickerel were examined in 
Lakes Helen and Polly between the period of June 8 and November 8, 
1956. Only 6% of these fish were infected with lymphocystis disease. 

Many of the spawning fish bore the fungus Saprolegnia 
which probably resulted from the prenuptial activity which removed 
the protective mucous from the epidermis. In some cases, Saprolegnia 
appeared to be a secondary infection taking root in the wake of some 
other disease. 



- 62 - 



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•NUMBER OF FISH 



- 63 - 

The parasitic copepod Argulus was not observed on any of 

the spawning fish in the Nipigon River. Small numbers of pickerel 
captured in Polly Lake, however, in July and August of 1955 and 1956 
were lightly infected with Argulus. Fish to be tagged when immersed 
in the urethane solution would invariably shed this parasite in short 
order. 

Parasitic leeches were occasionally observed on a few of 
the spawning pickerel usually about the caudal region. These were 
normally fewer than four in number on each individual fish. 

Only one fresh sea lamprey scar was found on the 1411 
pickerel examined. Other healed scars were observed on several fish 
but were believed to be wounds from spears, snares or other imple- 
ments often employed in poaching these fish. 

.acknowledgment s 

Conservation Officer C. r c Rettie, of Nipigon contributed 
most to this project and was solely responsible for the water tempera- 
ture series. J. Holt, C. A. Rettie, P. Odorizzi, H. Height, and G. 
Whitefield assisted during the tagging operations. D. D 9 Agostini 
and E. J. Swift were also instrumental in making the tagging project 
a success. Mr. and Mrs. E. Wilson of the Polly Lake Cabins were 
responsible for obtaining most of the tag returns by angling. 
Commercial fishermen William Legault and the Gerow Brothers, and 
Conservation Officer J. Scott of Pays Plat insured successful tag 
returns from Nipigon Bay, J. Hallam of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada co-operated with information on the effect on the pickerel 
migration of the Jackfish River lamprey weir, and obtained tags and 
data from pickerel captured at the weir. Others, too numerous to 
mention, assisted in various ways during the past year, particularly 
in taking time to see that tags were returned to the Department. To 
these people we are greatly indebted. 

Literature Cited 

Cobb, Eben W. 

1923. Pike-perch propagation in northern Minnesota. Trans. Am. 
Fish. Soc, Vol. 53, pp. 95-105. 

Derback, B. 

1947<> The adverse effect of cold weather upon the successful 

reproduction of pickerel, Stizostedion vitreum at Fleming 
Lake, Manitoba, in 1947. Can. Fish. Cult., Vol. 2, No. 1, 
pp. 22-23 

Eddy, Samuel, and Thaddeus Surber 

1947 Northern fishes with special reference to the Upper Missis- 
sippi Valley, Univ. of Minn. Press, xii 276 pp. (revised 
edition) . 



- 64 - 

Eschmeyer, Paul H. 

1950. The life history of the walleye, Stizostedion vi tre um 

vitrcum ( Mit chill ) , in Michigan. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res. 
(Mich. } No. 3, pp. 1-99. 

Eschmeyer, R. W. 

1942. The catch, abundance, and migration of game fishes in 

Norris Reservoir, Tennessee, 1940. Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 
Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 90-115. 

Herman, Elmer F. 

1947. Notes on tagging walleyes on the Wolf River. Wis. Cons. 
Bull., Vol. 12, No. 4/ pp. 7-9. 

Schneberger, E. 

1933, The Wolf River pike run. Wis. Cons. Bull., Vol. 3, No. 8, 
pp. 3-6. 

Schneberger, E. 

1939. Report on Wolf River survey. Wis. Cons. Bull., Vol. 4, 
No. 6, pp. 3-10. 

1940. 1940 survey of Wolf River pike run. Wis. Cons. Bull., 
Vol. 5 » No. 6, pp. 47-50. 



- 65 - 

CREEL CENSUS - KENORA DISTRICT - 1955. 

by 
Jo Mo Fraser 



I ntroducti on 

The purpose of the creel census carried out in the Kenora 
District is to ascertain the quality of angling and to some extent 
the quantity of angling in this district. To obtain this information 
creel census log books, creel census cards and fish resources 
questionnaires have been distributed throughout the district. A 
detailed description of the methods used and various factors to be 
taken into consideration in interpreting the creel census data were 
presented in last year ? s report (Creel Census - Kenora District - 
1954). 

R eturn of Creel Census Car ds and L ogbooks 

The logbooks and creel census cards returned to the 
Department with information covered 2111 anglers who fished a total 
of 14059 hours. This is a slight decrease from the 2612 anglers 
who fished I6164 hours in 1954. as in 1954 the bulk of the informa- 
tion was obtained through the efforts of a relatively small number 
of persons. These were mainly guides and camp owners, who were in 
a position to observe a good deal of angling. Creel census informa- 
tion was also obtained by the Conservation Officers in the course 
of their patrols. The creel census data on hand are selective and 
probably reflects the angling success experienced by guided parties 
or local anglers familiar with the waters. 

Creel census log books provided 90% of the information 
collected in 1955. In the future the creel census card will be 
dispensed with except in certain circumstances. 

A ngling Success - Lake of th e Woods 

A summary of the creel census information collected on 
Lake of the Woods during 1954 and 1955 is presented in the first two 
columns of Table I, In 1955? 1236 anglers reported catching 9312 
fish at the rate of 1.3 per hour as compared with 1.0 per hour in 
1954. In terms of pounds the 1955 catch was 2.5 pounds per hour 
compared to 2.0 pounds per hour in 1954. 

The increase of 0.3 fish per hour from 1954 to 1955 is not 
believed to be significant but it does demonstrate the need for more 
creel census information and also points out the care required in 
interpreting a relatively small sample to represent the general 
picture. In 1955 five guides from one camp kept extensive records 
of their fishing - they did not keep records in 1954. The waters 
they fish are particularly abundant in pike as well as pickerel and 
as a result the reported catch of pike in our records is much higher 



- 66 - 

than last year. Whereas in 1954 pike made up 22$ of the catch in 
1955 this percentage jumped to 32%° 

The yellow pickerel was the dominant species in the anglers* 
catch in both drears and were caught at approximately the same rate. 
This species made up 72% of the catch in 1954 and 6l% in 1955. The 
average weight of the pickerel was reported as 1,5 lbs. 

More smallmouth bass were reported caught in 1955 but as 
in 1954 many of these were released after capture. The data on lake 
trout and maskinonge are too limited for discussion. Black crappie, 
perch and sauger were also reported by anglers from the southern part 
of the lake. 

It appears that 1955 was a good angling year on Lake of 
the Woods with anglers taking fish at the rate of one per hour. 
The creel census data agree reasonably well with information obtained 
through personal contacts, correspondence, and other sources. 

Angling Succ ess - Other Lakes of Kenora District 

Creel census reports of angling in 4$ other lakes of the 
Kenora District have been received but there are insufficient data 
on any particular lake to allow a separate analysis. Therefore, 
the information from these lakes has been combined, summarized and 
presented in columns 3 & 4 of Table I. 

The fishing success as reported from these lakes averages 
1.2 fish weighing 2,6 pounds per angling hour. Pickerel and pike 
made up over 90$ of the anglers catch from these lakes (see Table II). 

In 14 lakes in which angling was almost entirely for lake 
trout in the spring and fall periods 177 anglers caught 420 lake 
trout in 1039 fishing hours at a rate of one lake trout every 2\ 
hours. This angling success is down slightly from last year when 
only two hours were required to catch each trout. The average weight 
of trout in 1955 was 4»2 pounds as compared to 4«0 pounds in 1954« 

A creel census box set-up at Lost Lake collected 20 creel 
census cards covering the speckled trout angling in that lake. Sixty 
fishermen caught 118 speckled trout weighing 164 pounds at a rate 
of one fish per 3«3 hours. This is better angling than in 1954 but 
the fish are smaller. 

Tourist Camp Owners y - Estimates of Angling Success 

As in 1953 and 1954 each tourist camp owner received a 
Fish Resources Inventory form to complete & return to the district 
office. The purpose of this questionnaire was to find out the 
exploitation our lakes receive from non-resident anglers and the 
angling success these anglers experience during their visit. In 
1955? 33$ of the questionnaires were returned to this office in 
comparison to a 29% return in 1954 and 15% in 1953 « 



- 67 - 

Table III & IV compare the return of questionnaires from 
tourist camps for the period 1953 - 1955= From these returns there 
are 1244 fishing days per season from the average camp on Lake of 
the Woods and 9&0 days from camps located on other lakes. 

In the questionnaire the camp owners were requested to 
estimate the average daily catch by one angler in the lakes regularly 
fished by that camp. In many lakes a combination of species is 
angled for while in other lakes certain species are specifically 
sought. It is difficult, however, to distinguish between '•general 1 '' 
fishing and "specific' 1 ' fishing and no attempt is made to do this 
in the following summary. Where an estimate of the daily pickerel 
catch has been made it has been summarized in the pickerel table. 
In many cases pike or smallmouth bass were also caught on the fishing 
trip but these are entered in their respective tables. 

Pic ker el 

In Table V tourist camp owners v estimates of the daily 
pickerel catch for 1953? 1954 and 1955 are compared and show a 
remarkable stability. As an aid in interpreting this table the 
following is given. In column /'/3 for 1955 > 9$ camp owners estimated 
the average daily pickerel catch on 75 different lakes to be 4«$ 
fish weighing 10.9 pounds. 

The average pickerel in 1955 weighed 2.3 pounds. In Lake 
of the Woods in 1955 (column #6) 31 camp owners estimated the daily 
pickerel catch to be 3->$ fish weighing 8.5 pounds or averaging 2.2 
pounds. A glance at the other columns covering 1953 and 1954 shows 
no radical change in catch. 

K erthern Pike (Table VI) 

Camp owners on Lake of the Woods estimated that their 
guests daily caught 3»2 pike averaging 3«7 pounds (each) in weight 
during the 1955 angling season. Camps located on other lakes 
estimated the average catch to be 4.4 pike weighing on the average 
5.3 pounds each. According to tourist camp owners on Lake of the 
Woods their daily pike catch has decreased from 3.7 in 1953 & 1954 
to 3.2 in 1055 while there has been an increase in the other lakes 
of the district from 3«5 pike per day to 4«4 per day. 

Smallmouth Bass (Table VII) 

The position of the smallmouth bass in the angling picture 
of the Kenora District is an unique one. Although it is fairly 
abundant in many waters it is seldom specifically fished and when 
caught is returned to the water a good percentage of the time. 
Whereas 31 camps on Lake of the Woods reported catching pike and 
pickerel only 15 bothered to mention the smallmouth bass in the 
questionnaire. In 24 other likes the daily bass catch averaged 3.2 
fish weighing 2.0 pounds on the average. 



63 



Lake Trout 



There are numerous lake trout lakes in the Kenora District 
which are fished only in the spring and fall periods and specifically 
for lake trout . Very few of these lakes contain pickerel and as a 
result are not fished to an}r extent except for lake trout in season. 
The data for these lake trout lakes in Table VIII show an amazing 
stability over the period 1953 - 1955. The average daily catch 
during this period has oscillated between 3«0 & 3«2 fish weighing on 
the average 4»1 - 4<>6 pounds each. 

Maskinonge 

The maskinonge is particularly sought only by a few anglers 
in the Kenora District and probably the greater percentage of these 
fish are taken accidentally by anglers fishing for other species. 
Maskinonge have been reported caught in at least 50 lakes situated 
in the western portion of the district. The eastern border of their 
range lies along the Manitou Lake chain north to Dinorwic Lake. 
Lake of the Woods, Eagle Lake and a chain of five smaller lakes 
near l-'iclntosh are noted for the rauskie fishing they provide. 

Thirty-nine Lake of the Woods camps reported catching $4 
maskinonge in 1955* These fish ranged from 10-35 pounds and averaged 
19 pounds in weight , The 39 camps represent 1/3 of the camps on 
this lake and the total muskie catch in Lake of the Woods for the 
1955 season probably did not exceed 500 fish. 

Seven of the 23 tourist camps on Eagle Lake reported 
taking 73 muskies during the 1955 season. These fish averaged 12-15 
pounds in weight. 

District-wise 277 maskinonge were reported by 102 of the 
307 tourist outfitters' camps during the 1955 angling season. 

S umma ry 

Generally speaking angling was of an excellent quality in 
the Kenora District in 1955» The creel census data collected by 
means of creel census cards and creel census log books agree 
reasonably well with estimates of angling success made by tourist 
camp owners. Angling for warm water species yielded over one fish 
(2 o 5~3°0 pounds) per hour while the lake trout lakes yielded one 
lake trout (4° 2 pounds average) for every 2^ hours of angling. 



T 69 - 



TABLE I - Comparison of 1954 and 1955 Creel Census Data 

Lake of the Woods 



Number of Anglers 
Number of Fishing-Hours 

No. of Pickerel Caught 

No. of Pike Caught 

No. of Bass Caught 

No. of haskinonge Caught 

No. of Lake Trout Caught 

No. of Speckled Trout Caught 

No, of All Species Caught 

No, of Fish per hour 

Pounds of Pickerel Caught 
Pounds of Pike Caught 
Pounds of Bass Caught 
Pounds of Maskinonge Caught 
Pounds of Lake Trout Caught 
Pounds of Speckled Trout Caught 

Pounds of All Species Caught 

Pounds of Fish per Hour 



14735 13139 



Other Lakes- 



1954 


1955 


_195A 


1955 


1233 


1236 


1374 


375 


7562 


7127 


3602 


6932 


53^7 


5692 


3031 


4113 


1667 


2930 


2990 


2312 


433 


612 


330 


102 


3 


3 


26 


29 


71 


25 


1174 


625 






65 

7666 


141 


7571 


9312 


7327 


1.0 


1.3 


0,9 


1,1 


3546 


3435 


5365 


7634 


4733 


3364 


10235 


3344 


734 


1125 


569 


174 


153 


46 


403 


379 


509 


219 


4559 


2477 






39 


175 



21775 19633 



2.0 



2.5 



2.5 



2.3 



TABLE II - Percentage Composition of Anglers* Catch as Reported 
by Creel Census Cards and Log Books 





Lake of the 


Woods 




Other 


Lak 


es 






Av, 


% of Tot. 


$ of Tot. 


AV. 


$ of Tc 


it. 


% 


of Tot. 


Species 


Wt, 


Catch 


Weight 


Wt. 


Catch 






/eight 


Pickerel 


1«5 


6l# 


46.5$ 


1.6 


59$ 






42 . 6$ 


Pike 


2.3 


32$ 


46$ 


3.2 


32$ 






45.3$ 


Lake Trout 


3.3 


0.3$ 


l»2/o 


4.1 


3.9$ 






7.2$ 


Smallmouth 


















Bass 


1.7 


6 . 6$ 


6.1$ 


1.3 


4.3$ 






3 c 4$ 


Kaskinonge 


15,3 


0.1$ 


. 2$ 


13.3 


0.2$ 






0.1$ 



- 70 - 

TABLE III - Return of Questionnaires - L ake of the Woods 

1953 1954 19.15 

No. of Questionnaires sent out 124 127 127 

No. of Questionnaires returned IS Uh-%) 35 (28f.) 39 (31$) 

With complete information 16 30 33 

No. of Fishing days per Camp 133 5 1303 1244 

TABLE IV - Retu_rn_of Questionn aires - Ot h er Lakes of Kenora Dist rict 

1953 1954 1955 

No. of Questionnaires sent out 172 ISO 180 

No. of Questionnaires returned 28 {15%) 54 (29$) 63 {35%) 

With complete information 21 44 53 

No. of fishing days per camp 1176 865 960 

TABLE V - Summary of Tourist Camp Owners 9 Estimates of the Average 
Daily Pi cker el Catch in the Lakes of the Kenora District 
1953-1915. 

Other Lakes Lake of the Woods 



1953 1954 1955 1953 1954 1955 



Number of estimates 50 75 98 16 30 31 

Number of Lakes covered by 

estimates 44 62 75 111 

Average Daily Catch by One 

Angler 
Average daily catch in pounds 
Average wt. of Pickerel 

TABLE VI - Summary of Tourist Camp Owners' Estimate of the Average 
Daily Pike Catch in the Lakes of the Kenora District, 
1953-1955. " , 



4*4 


4.4 


4c 8 


4.3 


3.6 


3.8 


.Cc4 


10.3 


10.9 


9.6 


7.0 


8.5 


2.4 


2.5 


2.3 


2.2 


2.0 


2.2 



Other Lakes 


Lake 


of the 


Wood 


1953 1954 1955 


1953 


1954 


1955 


50 92 118 


16 


29 


31 


47 77 84 


1 


1 


1 


3.5 3.6 4.4 
16.3 18.0 23.3 


3.7 
15.6 


3.7 

14.6 


3.2 

11.8 



Number of estimates 
Number of Lakes covered by 

estimates 
Average Daily Catch by One 

Angler 
Average Daily Catch in Pounds 
Average Weight of Pike 4.7 5.0 5.3 4.2 3.9 3.7 



TABLE VII - Summary of the Tourist Camp Owners 9 Estimates of the 
Average Daily Small mouth Bass Cakch in Lakes of the 
Keriora District, 19~53-1955 » 

Other Lakes Lake of the Vfoods 



Number of estimates 
Number of lakes covered by 

estimates 
Average Daily Catch by One 

Angler 
Average Daily Catch in Pounds 
Average Weight of Bass 



1951 


1954 


1955 


1953 


1954 


1215 


19 


21 


23 


10 


10 


15 


17 


20 


24 


1 


1 


1 


1.6 
3.6 
2.2 


3.2 

Sol 

2.5 


3.2 

6.5 

2.0 


2.4 
4.9 
1.9 


1.8 

3.7 
2.0 


0.9 
1.8 
2.0 



Table VIII - Summary of Tourist Camp Owners 9 Estimates of the 
Average Daily Lake Trout Catch in Lakes of the 
Kenora District, 1953 - 1955. 

Other Lakes Lake of the Woods 



Number of estimates 
Number of lakes covered by 

estimates 
Average Daily Catch by One 

Angler 
Average Daily Catch in Pounds 
Average Weight of Trout 



1953 


1954 


1955 


1953 


6 


40 


59 




8 


37 


55 


Insuf 


3.2 


3.0 


3.1 




13 .6 


13.9 


12.8 




4.2 


4.6 


4.1 





1 954 1955 



APPENDIX A 



Section Report (Wildlife) No. 18 September, 1957 



RESULTS OF DEER AGING TESTS 



R. L. Eeoburn 



ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
Division of Research 



RESULTS OF DEER AGING TESTS 

by 

R„ Lc Hepburn 
Division of Research 



INTRODUCTION 

During September and October, 1956, short courses 
of instruction in aging deer jaws were given to members 
of the Department of Lands and Forests at Sudbury, North 
Bay, the Southern Research Station, Hespeler and the 
Forest Ranger School, All those receiving instruction 
(a total of 63 individuals) were given a test comprising 
29 jaws. The same group of jaws was used at each location. 

This report describes the analysis of the results 
of the tests. 



METHOD 

The ages of the test jaws were estimated by the 
author according to a modification of Severinghaus' (19^9) 
technique and this system was used in the course of in- 
struction. They were then numbered randomly and each 
student was allowed one minute to determine the age of 
each jaw. 

When the tests were marked and the test jaws re- 
examined it was decided that one jaw was a sufficiently 
atypical specimen to warrant its exclusion from the final 
results e 

During the instruction period criteria for ages 
-g- year, li years, 2-g- years, etc. through 8-10 years were 
outlined. For the test, however, candidates were allowed 
to lump all jaws 5i years and over into a single class 
designated as " 51 plus", although they were urged to 
attempt an exact age determination if possible. Conse- 
quently, calculations of errors made in the older age 
classes are based on a smaller sample-- those who volun- 
teered a precise age for jaws 5"2 years and over. 



- 2 - 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 



Fig. 1 shows a steeply rising percentage of error 
from $ year to 6^ years with 7k and o-g- plus somewhat lower, 
but both over kCf/o and the latter nearly 6($. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the results when age determinations 
of 5i years and over were lumped into a single class. The 
very high percentage of mistakes among the "volunteers" 
appearing in Fig. 1 may have been the result of laxity in 
aging old jaws arising from the knowledge that no penalty 
attached to an incorrect aging provided the jaw was actually 
5-2 years or over. 

Fig. 3 separates mistakes into over estimations and 
under estimations, and reveals a conspicuous tendency to 
overage young jaws and underage old jaws with the mid-point 
at 3"2 years. The ratios of under estimations to over estimations 
in each age class were tested for significance using the 
chi-square test on the hypothesis tnat errors due to chance 
alone would produce ratios near 1:1, All ratios except 2>i 
years differed significantly from the random 1:1. 

The mistakes made in each age class (except 34 years) 
were examined separately to determine if one or two perhaps 
slightly atypical jaws might be contributing all the error in 
that age class, The age determinations for each jaw were 
tabulated and the resulting ratios were tested for hetero- 
geneity on the basis of the difference between the total 
chi-square and the chi-square of the total (Snedecor, 19^6, 
pp. 191-192). The only age class found to contain signifi- 
cantly heterogeneous data was l|-, which included an unusual 
specimen deliberately inserted in the test set. Thus the 
tendency to overage young jaws and underage old ones is not 
only significant but also uniform. 

Participants' marks ranged from 13 to 28 out of a 
possible 28. The frequency distribution of the marks was 
bienodal with peaks at 20 and 23. These two groups repre- 
sented roughly those who had had previous practice in aging 
deer (or to whom the task was for some reason easy), and 
those to whom the technique was either unfamiliar or difficult. 
The two groups were compared to test whether they made the 
same sort of mistakes. Fig. k shows that both groups ex- 
perience the same increasing difficulty as the age of the 
test material increases. Also, a detailed comparison showed 
that the pattern of over estimation and underestimation 
discussed above, was constant for the two groups. 



- 3 - 

Eighty-six percent of all mistakes were off the 
correct age by one year only, The remaining lh% were in 
error by two years or more. Out of 119 mistakes made by 
Group A (marks 22-28) only four were two years off the 
correct age. Of a total cf 282 mistakes by Group B (marks 
13-21) however, *+9 (17%) were two years off the correct 
age and 3 (1%) were three years off Underestimation by 
two years of 5£ and 6i year jaws (i t e. calling them 3^ and 
hi years respectively) were the most frequent of the gross 
errorSe 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

Sixty- three members of the staff of the Department 
of Lands and Forests were tested on their ability to age 
deer jaws by a prescribed method. The results showed an 
increase in errors corresponding to increased age of the 
test material which ranged from -g- year to 8-g- plus years in 
one year steps „ The candidates exhibited a significant 
tendency to overage young jaws and underage old jaws with 
the mid- point or random error occurring at 3 2" years „ 
Practice or aptitude reduces the degree of error but does 
not alter the above mentioned pattern,. 

An attempt could be made to minimize distortions of 
kill curves arising frommisaged deer by correcting for the 
trends shown here. However, it would be advisable to test 
a larger group before estimating the magnitude of the cor- 
rection factors to be used. 

When a small number of animals must be aged accurately 
or where a sample of jaws could be removed from a large number 
of animals j, all aging would best be delegated to a single 
skillful and careful individual. 



REFERENCES 

Severinghaus, C W„ 

19^9 Tooth development and wear as criteria of age in 
white-tailed deer. 
Jour. Wildl. Mangt. 13 (2): 195-216. 

Snedeccr, George W 9 

19*+6 Statistical methods. 

Iowa State College Press, *+85 pp 



I 00 



90 



60 



o 

bJ 

cc 
cc 
o 
o 

z 



70 



60 



50 



U 
O 
< 

z 

u 
or 

UJ 
0. 



40 



30 



20 



10 



AGE IN 
YEARS 

BASE 



*2 \''2 2% 3^2 4% 5% 6% 7% 8^ + 
129 250 273 312 190 182 86 61 94 



FIG- I Histogram showing mistakes in ageing 

DEER JAWS : AGE CLASSES *? YEAR TO 



8 ^ + YEARS. 



00 



90 



80 



U 

bJ 

or 
or 
o 
u 

z 



70 



60 



50 



U 
O 
< 

I- 
Z 
u 
U 

or 

LxJ 

0- 



40 



30 



20 



10 



AGE IN 
YEARS 

BASE 



i 



1 4 



2^ 3^ 4^ 



129 250 273 



313 



bh 



4- 



190 612 



FIG- 2 Histogram showing mistakes 

IN AGEING DEER JAWS'. AGE 
CLASSES ^ K£"/*/? 70 5^ + K£"/4/?S. 



100 




UNDEREST'D 



OVEREST'D 



AGE IN 
YEARS 


2 


1 '' 
1 2 


* 2 


3 ; " 


^ 2 


O 2 


S 7 ' 


' 2 


8^ + 


BASE 


7 


5 1 


65 


101 


75 


94 


62 


26 


56 


F 1 G - 3 


Mistakes 


IN 


*<?£■ 


DETERMINATIONS 


SEPARATED 



PERCENTAGEWISE INTO OVEREST I MAT I ON S (SHADED') 
UNDERESTIMATIONS (UNSHADED) 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 




BASE 

70 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



AGE IN 
YEARS 

BASE 



GROUP A 

MARKS 2 2-28 




Is 
2 

62 



Is 
2 

24 



-pis 
d 2 



I 31 



Is 



ls_ 



Is. 



3 2 4 2 5 2 



154 



92 



45 



'■2 

26 



□ = u 



NDEREST'D 
c OVERE5T' D 



D= u 



NDEREST ' D 
OVEREST'D 



ek, + 



FIG 



COM PAR ISON OF ERRORS made in ageing 
DEER JAWS BY TWO GROUPS OF CANDIDATES 



V 









£/ 



V 



Kpm 



V?p>